Daneshvar, Daniel H., Christopher J. Nowinski, Ann McKee, and Robert C. Cantu. 2011. The epidemiology of sport-related concussion. Clinics in Sports Medicine 30(1): 1–17.
Greenwald, Richard M., Joseph T. Gwin, Jeffrey J. Chu, and Joseph J. Crisco. 2008. Head impact severity measures for evaluating mild traumatic brain injury risk exposure. Neurosurgery 62(4): 789–98.
McKee, Ann C., Robert C. Cantu, Christopher J. Nowinski, E. Tessa Hedley-Whyte, Brandon E. Gavett, Andrew E. Budson, Veronica E. Santini, Hyo-Soon Lee, Caroline A. Kubilus, and Robert A. Stern. 2009. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in athletes: progressive tauopathy following repetitive head injury. Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology 68(7): 709–735.
McKee, Ann C., Thor D. Stein, Christopher J. Nowinski, Robert A. Stern, Daniel H. Daneshvar, Victor E. Alvarez, Hyo-Soon Lee, et al. 2013. The spectrum of disease in chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Brain 136(1): 43–64.
Omalu, Bennet I., Julian Bailes, Jennifer Lynn Hammers, and Robert P. Fitzsimmons. 2010. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, suicides and parasuicides in professional american athletes: the role of the forensic pathologist. The American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology 31(2): 130–132.
Stern, Robert A., David O. Riley, Daniel H. Daneshvar, Christopher J. Nowinski, Robert C. Cantu, and Ann C. McKee. 2011. Long-term consequences of repetitive brain trauma: chronic traumatic encephalopathy. Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation 3(10): S460–S467.
Gavett, Brandon E., Robert A. Stern, and Ann C. McKee. 2011. Chronic traumatic encephalopathy: a potential late effect of sport-related concussive and subconcussive head trauma. Clinics in Sports Medicine 30(1): 179–188.
McCrory, Paul, Willem H. Meeuwisse, Mark Aubry, Bob Cantu, Jiří Dvořák, Ruben J. Echemendia, Lars Engebretsen, et al. 2013. Consensus statement on concussion in sport: the 4th international conference on concussion in sport held in Zurich, November 2012. British Journal of Sports Medicine 47(5): 250–258.
Talavage, Thomas M., Eric A. Nauman, Evan L. Breedlove, Umit Yoruk, Anne E. Dye, Katherine E. Morigaki, Henry Feuer, and Larry J. Leverenz. 2014. Functionally-detected cognitive impairment in high school football players without clinically-diagnosed concussion. Journal of Neurotrauma 31(4): 327–338.
Prichep, Leslie S., Michael McCrea, William Barr, Matthew Powell, and Robert J. Chabot. 2013. Time course of clinical and electrophysiological recovery after sport-related concussion. The Journal of Head Trauma Rehabilitation 28(4): 266–273.
Dettwiler, Annegret, Murali Murugavel, Margot Putukian, Valerie Cubon, John Furtado, and Daniel Osherson. 2014. Persistent differences in patterns of brain activation after sports-related concussion: a longitudinal functional magnetic resonance imaging study. Journal of Neurotrauma 31: 180–188.
Tremblay, Sara, Vincent Beaulé, Sébastien Proulx, Sébastien Tremblay, Malgorzata Marjánska, Julie Doyon, Maryse Lassonde, and Hugo Théoret. 2014. Multimodal assessment of primary motor cortex integrity following sport concussion in asymptomatic athletes. Clinical Neurophysiology 125: 1371–1379.
Gosselin, Nadia, Martin Thériault, Suzanne Leclerc, Jacques Montplaisir, and Maryse Lassonde. 2006. Neurophysiological anomalies in symptomatic and asymptomatic concussed athletes. Neurosurgery 58(6): 1151–1161.
Miller, Franklin G., and Alan Wertheimer. 2007. Facing up to paternalism in research ethics. Hastings Center Report 37(3): 24–34.
Guskiewicz, K.M., S.W. Marshall, J. Bailes, M. McCrea, R.C. Cantu, C. Randolph, and B.D. Jordan. 2005. Association between recurrent concussion and late-life cognitive impairment in retired professional football players. Neurosurgery 57(4): 719–726.
Weinbaum, William and Steve Delsohn. 2013. Dorsett, others show signs of CTE. ESPN Outside the Lines. http://espn.go.com/espn/otl/story/_/id/9931754/former-nfl-stars-tony-dorsett-leonard-marshall-joe-delameilleure-show-indicators-cte-resulting-football-concussions. Accessed 12 March 2014.
Schwarz, Alan. 2010. Suicide reveals signs of a disease seen in N.F.L. The New York Times, 14 September: A1.
Caron, Jeffrey G., Gordon A. Bloom, Karen M. Johnston, and Catherine M. Sabiston. 2013. Effects of multiple concussions on retired national hockey league players. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology 35(2): 168–179.
O’Neill, Onora. 1984. Paternalism and partial autonomy. Journal of Medical Ethics 10(4): 173–178.
Buchanan, Allen E., and Dan W. Brock. 1990. Deciding for others: the ethics of surrogate decision making. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
McCrory, P., A. Collie, V. Anderson, and G. Davis. 2004. Can we manage sport related concussion in children the same as in adults? British Journal of Sports Medicine 38(5): 516–519.
McCrory, Paul. 2001. Does second impact syndrome exist? Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine 11(3): 144–149.
Bey, Tareg, and Brian Ostick. 2009. Second impact syndrome. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine 10(1): 6–10.
McCrory, Paul R., and Samuel F. Berkovic. 1998. Second impact syndrome. Neurology 50(3): 677–683.
Johnson, L. Syd M. 2012. Return to play guidelines cannot solve the football–related concussion problem. Journal of School Health 82(4): 180–185.
Mayers, Lester. 2008. Return-to-play criteria after athletic concussion: a need for revision. Archives of Neurology 65(9): 1158–1161.
Batjer, Hunt and Richard Ellenbogen. 2011. Memo: NFL concussion guidelines. NFLevolution.com. http://www.nflevolution.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2012/08/nfl-hns-memo-2011v2.pdf. Accessed 29 May 2014.
National Football League. 2014. NFL Sideline Concussion Assessment Tool. NFL.com http://static.nfl.com/static/content/public/photo/2014/02/20/0ap2000000327062.pdf. Accessed 27 May 2014.
National Football League. 2009. NFL adopts stricter statement on return-to-play following concussions. http://www.nflevolution.com/wordpress/wp-content/uploads/2013/03/nfl_adopts_stricter_statement_on_return-to-play_following_concussions-508.pdf. Accessed 14 March 2014.
Breslow, Jason M. 2014. NFL concussions: The 2013–14 season in review. Frontline. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sports/concussion-watch/nfl-concussions-the-2013-14-season-in-review/. Accessed 14 March 2014.
National Football League. Super Bowl XLVIII Health & Safety Press Conference. 2014. http://nfllabor.files.wordpress.com/2014/01/hs-press-conference.pdf. Accessed 14 March 2014.
Breslow, Jason M. 2014. What we’ve learned from 2 years of tracking NFL concussions. Frontline. http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/sports/concussion-watch/what-weve-learned-from-two-years-of-tracking-nfl-concussions/. Accessed 12 March 2014.
Sporting News Staff. 2012. NFL concussion poll: 56 % of players would hide symptoms to stay on field. Sporting News. http://www.sportingnews.com/nfl/story/2012-11-11/nfl-concussions-hide-symptoms-sporting-news-midseason-players-poll.Accessed 13 March 2014
Keim, John. 2014. Most would play SB with concussion. ESPN.com. http://espn.go.com/nfl/story/_/id/10358874/majority-nfl-players-play-super-bowl-concussion-espn-survey. Accessed 14 March 2014.
Barzilai, Peter and Erik Brady. 2014. Knee injuries worry NFL players more than concussions. USA Today. http://www.usatoday.com/story/sports/nfl/2014/01/27/nfl-players-injury-survey-knee-head-concussions/4918341/. Accessed 13 March 2014.
Reilly, Rick. 2011. Talking football with Archie, Peyton, Eli. ESPN. http://sports.espn.go.com/espn/news/story?id=6430211. Accessed 1 March 2014.
Torres, Daniel M., Kristin M. Galetta, H. Westley Phillips, E. Mark, S. Dziemianowicz, James A. Wilson, Emily S. Dorman, Eric Laudano, Steven L. Galetta, and Laura J. Balcer. 2013. Sports-related concussion: anonymous survey of a collegiate cohort. Neurology: Clinical Practice 3(4): 279–287.
Crawley, Paul. 2014. Wake-up call: Rugby league concussion culture has to change says head doctor. The Daily Telegraph. http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/sport/nrl/wakeup-call-rugby-league-concussion-culture-has-to-change-says-head-doctor/story-fni3fbgz-1226852942110. Accessed 13 March 2014.
Goldberg, Daniel S. 2008. Concussions, professional sports, and conflicts of interest: Why the national football League’s current policies are bad for its (players’) health. HEC Forum 20(4): 337–355.
Maese, Rick. 2014. Lawsuit: NFL pushed drugs on players. The Washington Post 20 May 2014. http://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/redskins/lawsuit-nfl-pushed-drugs-on-players/2014/05/20/7148e190-e068-11e3-9442-54189bf1a809_story.html. Accessed 27 May 2014.
Jenkins, Sally and Rick Maese. 2013. Pain and pain management in NFL spawn a culture of prescription drug use and abuse. The Washington Post. 13 April 2013. http://www.washingtonpost.com/sports/redskins/pain-and-pain-management-in-nfl-spawn-a-culture-of-prescription-drug-use-and-abuse/2013/04/13/3b36f4de-a1e9-11e2-bd52-614156372695_story.html. Accessed 28 May 2014
Levy, Neil. 2012. Forced to be free? increasing patient autonomy by constraining it. Journal of Medical Ethics. doi:10.1136/medethics-2011-100207.
Audi, Robert (ed.). 1995. The Cambridge dictionary of philosophy 2e. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Millspaugh, J. A. 1937. Dementia pugilistica. US Naval Medical Bulletin 35: 297Y303.
Martland, Harrison S. 1928. Punch drunk. Journal of the American Medical Association 91(15): 1103–1107.
Leclerc, S., and C.D. Herrera. 1999. Sport medicine and the ethics of boxing. British Journal of Sports Medicine 33(6): 426–429.
Herrera, C.D. 2002. The moral controversy over boxing reform. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 29(2): 163–173.
Patterson, Russel H. 1986. On boxing and liberty. Journal of the American Medical Association 255(18): 2481–2482.
Warburton, Nigel. 1998. Freedom to box. Journal of Medical Ethics 24(1): 56–60.
Husak, Douglas N. 1981. Paternalism and autonomy. Philosophy & Public Affairs: 27–46
Pound, Richard. 2004. Remarks by WADA President Richard Pound at AAS annual meeting February 11, 2004. World Anti-Doping Association. http://www.wada-ama.org/en/Media-Center/Archives/Articles/Remarks-by-WADA-President-Richard-W-Pound-at-AAAS-annual-meeting/#. Accessed 15 May 2014.
Wamplew, Wray. 2007. Playing with the rules: influences on the development of regulation in sport. The International Journal of the History of Sport 24(7): 843–871.
Torres, Cesar R. 2000. What counts as part of a game?A look at skills. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport XXVII: 81–92.
Tamburrini, Claudio. 2011. What’s wrong with J.S. Mill’s “harm-to-others” principle? Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 38: 1–26.
Weimer, Steven. 2012. Consent and right action in sport. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 39(1): 11–31.
Weimer, Steven. 2013. Consent, context, and obligations: a response to Ciomaga. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 41(2): 233–245.
Ciomaga, Bogdan. 2013. Rules and obligations. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 40(1): 19–40.
Fraleigh, Warren P. 2003. Intentional rules violations. Journal of the Philosophy of Sport 30(2): 166–176.
Johnson, L. Syd M. 2011. Concussion in youth ice hockey: It’s time to break the cycle. Canadian Medical Association Journal 183(8): 921–924.
Farrar, Doug. 2014. NFL could fine players for violating concussion protocol. Sports Illustrated. http://nfl.si.com/2014/01/16/nfl-concussion-protocol/. Accessed 3 June 2014.
Rosenthal, Joseph A., Randi E. Foraker, Christy L. Collins, and R. Dawn Comstock. National high school athlete concussion rates from 2005–2006 to 2011–2012. 2014. The American Journal of Sports Medicine doi:10.1177/0363546514530091.