Skip to main content

Facilitating open exchange of data and information

Abstract

By broad consensus, Open Data presents great value. However, beyond that simple statement, there are a number of complex, and sometimes contentious, issues that the science community must address. In this review, we examine the current state of the core issues of Open Data with the unique perspective and use cases of the ocean science community: interoperability; discovery and access; quality and fitness for purpose; and sustainability. The topics of Governance and Data Publication are also examined in detail. Each of the areas covered are, by themselves, complex and the approaches to the issues under consideration are often at odds with each other. Any comprehensive policy on Open Data will require compromises that are best resolved by broad community input. In the final section of the review, we provide recommendations that serve as a starting point for these discussions.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1

Notes

  1. 1.

    e.g., file synchronization protocols like rsync could be used.

References

  1. Allcock W, Bresnahan J, Kettimuthu R, Link M, Dumitrescu C, Raicu J, Foster I (2005) The Globus striped GridFTP framework and server. In Proceedings of the 2005 ACM/IEEE conference on Supercomputing p 54 I.E. Computer Society, 2005

  2. Allinson J (2006) OAIS as a reference model for repositories: an evaluation. Report, UKOLN, University of Bath. http://eprints.whiterose.ac.uk/3464/. Accessed 19 Sept 2014

  3. Altman M, King G (2007) A proposed standard for the scholarly citation of quantitative data. D-Lib Magazine, 13(3/4). http://www.dlib.org/dlib/march07/altman/03altman.html. Accessed 19 Sept 2014

  4. Australian Government (2009) Government 2.0 task force report. http://www.finance.gov.au/publications/gov20taskforcereport/doc/Government20TaskforceReport.pdf. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  5. Ball A, Duke M (2012) How to cite data sets and link to publications. Edinburgh, UK: Digital Curation Centre. http://www.dcc.ac.uk/webfm_send/525. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  6. BCO-DMO (2014) Biological & chemical oceanography data management office. http://www.bco-dmo.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  7. BDJ (2014) Biodiversity data journal. http://biodiversitydatajournal.com. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  8. Berners-Lee T (2009) The next web. TED 2009 Conference. http://www.ted.com/talks/tim_berners_lee_on_the_next_web.html. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  9. Best B, Halpin P, Fujioka E, Read A, Qain S, Hazen L, Schick R (2007) Geospatial web services within a scientific workflow: predicting marine mammal habitats in a dynamic environment. Ecol Inform 2(3):210–223. doi:10.1016/j.ecoinf.2007.07.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  10. Bjork B, Solomon D, (2012) Pricing principles used by Scholarly Open Access Publishers. Learn Publ 25(3):132–137. doi:10.1087/20120207

  11. BODC (2014) Published data library. https://www.bodc.ac.uk/data/published_data_library. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  12. Borgman CL (2012) The conundrum of sharing research data. J Assoc Inf Sci Technol 63(6):1059–1078. doi:10.1002/asi.22634

    Article  Google Scholar 

  13. Braunschweig K, Eberius J, Thiele M, Lehner W (2012) The state of open data—limits of current open data platforms. In: Mille A, Gandon FL, Misselis J, Rabinovich M, Staab S (eds) Proceedings of the 21st World Wide Web Conference 2012, (WWW 2012), Lyon, France

  14. Busse S, Kutsche RD, Leser U, Weber H (1999) Federated information systems: concepts, terminology and architectures. Tech. Rep., Technical University Berlin

  15. Carpenter S et al (2009) Accelerate synthesis in ecology and environmental sciences. Bioscience 59(8):699–701. doi:10.1525/bio.2009.59.8.11

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Cocco M (2012) Research infrastructure and e-science for data and observatories on earthquakes, volcanoes, surface dynamics and tectonics. ICRI2012, International conference on research infrastructures. http://ec.europa.eu/research/infrastructures/pdf/workshop_october_2011/16_esfri_epos_cocco.pdf. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  17. CODATA (2009) Data Sci J. http://www.codata.org/dsj. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  18. Copernicus (2014) Copernicus: The European earth observation programme. http://www.copernicus.eu. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  19. Copernicus Publications (2014) Earth system science data: the data publishing journal. http://earth-system-science-data.net. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  20. Costello M (2009) Motivating online publication of data. Bioscience 59(5):418–427. doi:10.1525/bio.2009.59.5.9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Costello M, Wieczorek J (2013) Biological Conversation 173:68–73. doi:10.1016/j.biocon.2013.10.018

    Google Scholar 

  22. Costello M, Bouchet P, Boxshall G, Fauchald K, Gordon D et al (2013a) Global coordination and standardisation in marine biodiversity through the world register of marine species (WoRMS) and related databases. PLoS One 8(1):e51629. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051629

    Article  Google Scholar 

  23. Costello M, Michelner WK, Gahegan M, Zhang Z-Q, Bourne PE (2013b) Biodiversity data should be published, cited, and peer reviewed. Trends Ecol Evol 28(8):454–461

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Costello M, Appeltrans W, Bailly N, Berendsohn W, Jong Y, Edwards M, Froese R, Huettmann F, Los W, Mess J, Segers H, Bisby F (2014) Strategies for the sustainability of online open-access biodiversity databases. Biol Conv 173:155–165

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Cragin MH, Palmer CL, Carlson JR, Witt M (2010) Data sharing, small science and institutional repositories. Philos Trans R Soc A 368:4023–4038

    Article  Google Scholar 

  26. Creative Commons (2014) Creative commons license. http://creativecommons.org/licenses. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  27. CUAHSI (2013) CUAHSI Water Data Center. http://wdc.cuahsi.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  28. Datacite (2014) Datacite. https://www.datacite.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  29. DataNet (2014) DataNet Federation Consortium—collaboration environments for data drivenscience. http://datafed.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  30. DataONE (2014) NSF data observation network for earth (DataONE). https://www.dataone.org/about. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  31. DOI (2014) Digital object identifier. http://www.doi.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  32. Dryad (2014) Dryad digital repository. http://datadryad.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  33. DuraSpace (2014) DSpace. http://www.dspace.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  34. Dusterhus A, Hense A (2014) Automated quality evaluation for a more effective data peer review. Data Sci J 13:67–78

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Earth Observations (2013) GEO BON—biodiversity observation network http://www.earthobservations.org/geobon.shtml. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  36. Environmental Systems Research Institute (2014) Living Atlas of the World. http://doc.arcgis.com/en/living-atlas. Accessed 21 September 2014

  37. ESIP (2012) Federation of earth science information partners. http://wiki.esipfed.org/index.php/Interagency_Data_Stewardship/Citations. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  38. ESS (2014) Earth and Space Science. http://agupubs.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/agu/journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%292333-5084/. Accessed 17 Sept 2014

  39. EU (2006) Communication from the Commission to the Council and the European Parliament: Interoperability for pan-European government services. http://www.epsos.eu/uploads/tx_epsosfileshare Communication-on-Interoperability_01.pdf. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  40. EU (2013) Guidelines on open access to scientific publications and research data in Horizon 2020. Version one. http://ec.europa.eu/research/participants/data/ref/h2020/grants_manual/hi/oa_pilot/h2020-hi-oa-pilot-guide_en.pdf. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  41. European Commission (2011) Digital agenda: turning government data into gold. Press release. http://europa.eu/rapid/press-release_IP-11-1524_en.htm. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  42. F1000Research (2014) http://f1000research.com. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  43. FGDC (2014) National spatial data infrastructure (NSDI).http://www.fgdc.gov/nsdi/nsdi.html. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  44. Figshare (2014) Figshare. http://figshare.com. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  45. Folkman M, Liao L, Jarecke P (2001) EO-1/Hyperion hyperspectral imager design, development, characterization, and calibration, Proc. SPIE 4151, Hyperspectral remote sensing of the land and atmosphere, 40 (February 8, 2001); doi:10.1117/12.417022

  46. Force II (2013) Force II: The future of research communication and scholarship, joint declaration of data citation principles. http://www.force11.org/datacitation. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  47. FSF (2014) Free software foundation. http://www.fsf.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  48. Gallagher J, Potter N, Sgouros T, Hankin S, Flierl G (2007) The data access protocol—DAP 2.0. NASA ESE-RFC-004.1.1. https://earthdata.nasa.gov/our-community/esdswg/standards-process-spg/rfc/esds-rfc-004-dap-20. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  49. GBIF (2014) Global biodiversity information facility. http://www.gbif.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  50. GDC (2014) Geological Data Center, Scripps Institution of Oceanography. http://gdc.ucsd.edu/. Accessed 17 Sept 2014

  51. GEO/CEOS (2008) GEO/CEOS workshop on quality assurance of calibration & validation processes: Establishing an operational framework. http://qa4eo.org/workshop_washington08.html. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  52. GeoViQua (2007) GeoViQua: QUAlity aware VIsualization for the global earth observation system of systems. http://www.geoviqua.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  53. Grassle JF (2000) The Ocean Biogeographic Information System (OBIS): an on-line, worldwide atlas for accessing, modeling and mapping marine biological data in a multidimensional geographic context. Oceanography 13(3):5–7. doi:10.5670/oceanog.2000.01

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Guess A (2013) Japan embraces open data, launches multiple open projects. http://semanticweb.com/japan-embraces-open-data-launches-multiple-open-projects_b35158. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  55. Hankin S, Blower J, Carval Th, Casey K, Donlon C, Lauret O, Loubrieu T, Srinivasan A, Trinanes J, Godoy O, Mendelssohn R, Signell R, De La Beaujardiere J, Cornillon P, Blanc F, Rew R, Harlan J (2010) NETCDF-CF-OPENDAP: standards for ocean data interoperability and object lessons for community data standards processes, Oceanobs 2009, Venice Convention Centre, 21–25 Septembre 2009, Venise, publication date 2010-12-23, http://archimer.ifremer.fr/doc/00027/13832/10969.pdf. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  56. Harley D, Kryzys Acord S, Earl-Novell S, Lawrence, S, Judson King C (2010) Assessing the future landscape of scholarly communication: An exploration of faculty values and needs in seven disciplines. Center for Studies in Higher Education, UC Berkeley. http://escholarship.org/uc/cshe_fsc. Accessed 17 Sept 2014

  57. IEDA (2014) Integrated earth data applications. http://www.iedadata.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  58. INSPIRE (2014) Infrastructure for spatial information in the European Community (INSPIRE). http://inspire.ec.europa.eu. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  59. IODE (2014) International oceanographic data and information exchange. http://www.iode.org,. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  60. IRIS (2014) Incorporated research institutes for seismology. http://www.iris.edu/hq/. Accessed 23 Dec 2014

  61. JoRD (2013) JoRD: Journal research data policy bank project. http://jordproject.wordpress.com. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  62. Kozak M, Hartley J (2013) Publication fees for open access journals: Different disciplines—different methods. J Am Soc Inf Sci Technol 64 (12). doi:10.1002/asi.22972

  63. Kratz J (2014) Fifteen ideas about data validation (and peer review). Data Pub [Blog], http://datapub.cdlib.org/2014/05/08/fifteen-ideas-about-data-validation-and-peer-review. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  64. Laakso M, Welling P, Bukvova H, Nyman L, Björk B-C et al (2011) The development of open access journal publishing from 1993 to 2009. PLoS One 6(6):e20961. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0020961

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Lavoie B (2008) The open archival information system reference model: introductory guide. Microform Imaging Rev 33(2):68–81. doi:10.1515/MFIR.2004.68

    Google Scholar 

  66. Lawrence B, Jones C, Matthews B, Pepler S, Callaghan S (2011) Citation and peer review of data: moving towards formal data publication. Int J Digit Curation 6(12):4–37

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Leadbetter A, Raymond L, Chandler C, Pikula L, Pissierssens P, Urban E (2013) Ocean Data Publication Cookbook. Paris: UNESCO, 39pp. (Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission Manuals and Guides 64). http://www.iode.org/index.php?option=com_oe&task=viewDocumentRecord&docID=10574. Accessed 9 Mar 2014

  68. Lecomte P, Stensaas G (2009) Overview of progress towards a data quality assurance strategy to facilitate interoperability. http://www.earthobservations.org/documents/committees/adc/200909_11thADC/DA-09-01a%20QA4EO.pdf. Accessed 22 Apr 2014

  69. MBL WHOI Library (2014) http://www.mblwhoilibrary.org. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  70. MANTRA (2014) Research data MANTRA.http://datalib.edina.ac.uk/mantra. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  71. Marshall P, Tufo H, Keahey K, La Bissoniere D (2012) Architecting a large-scale elastic environment-recontextualization and adaptive cloud services for scientific computing. In Proceedings of ICSOFT:409–418

  72. Mendeley (2014) Mendeley. http://www.mendeley.com Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  73. Mooney H, Newton MP (2012) The anatomy of a data citation: discovery, reuse and credit. J Librariansh Sch Commun 1(1):eP1035

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. NASA (2014) EOSDIS: NASA’s earth observing system data and information system. https://earthdata.nasa.gov. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  75. National Research Council (2012) For attribution – developing data attribution and citation practices and standards. National Academies Press, Washington, DC

    Google Scholar 

  76. Nativi S, Craglia M, Pearlman J (2012) The brokering approach for multidisciplinary interoperability: a position paper. Int J Spat Data Infrastruct 7:1–15

    Google Scholar 

  77. Nativi S, Craglia M, Pearlman J (2013) Earth science infrastructures interoperability: the brokering approach. J Sel Top Appl Earth Obs Remote Sens 6:1118–1129. doi:10.1109/JSTARS.2013.2243113

    Article  Google Scholar 

  78. Nature Publishing Group (2014) Scientific data. http://www.nature.com/sdata. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  79. Neilsen M (2011) Reinventing discovery: the vew era of networked science. Princeton University Press

  80. NERC (2014) Data centres. http://www.nerc.ac.uk/research/sites/data. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  81. NOAA IOOS (2014) Quality assurance of real time ocean data, QARTOD. http://www.ioos.noaa.gov/qartod/welcome.html. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  82. NSB (2011) NSB 11–79 digital research data sharing and management: report of the Task Force on Data Policies. Tech. rep. National Science Board

  83. NSF (2010) National science foundation data management plan. http://www.nsf.gov/bfa/dias/policy/dmp.jsp. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  84. NSF (2014) National Science Foundation Directorate for Geosciences: Earth cube. http://www.nsf.gov/geo/earthcube/. Accessed 22 Apr 2014

  85. OGC (2014) Open Geospatial Consortium. http://www.opengeospatial.org. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  86. OneGeology (2014) OneGeology.http://www.onegeology.org, Accessed 24 Apr 2014

  87. Onoda M (2012) GEOSS Data sharing principles and action plan. Workshop on GMES Data and Information Policy, Brussels http://ec.europa.eu/enterprise/newsroom/cf/_getdocument.cfm?doc_id=7140. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  88. OOI (2014) Ocean observatories initiative. http://oceanobservatories.org/. Accessed 18 Sept 2014

  89. Open Knowledge Foundation (2012) The open data handbook. http://opendatahandbook.org/en/what-is-open-data. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  90. Palfrey J, Gasser U (2012) Interop: the promise and perils of highly interconnected systems. Basic Books

  91. Pangaea (2014) Pangaea: Data publisher for the earth & environmental sciences. http://www.pangaea.de. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  92. Parsons MA, Fox P (2013) Is data publication the right metaphor? Data Sci J 12:WDS32–WDS46

    Google Scholar 

  93. Parsons MA, Duerr R, Minster J-B (2010) Data citation and peer review. Eos: Trans Am Geophys Union 91(34):297–299

    Article  Google Scholar 

  94. Pearlman J, Shibasaki R (2008) Guest editorial: global earth observation system of systems. IEEE Syst J 2(3):302–303. doi:10.1109/JSYST.2008.928859

    Article  Google Scholar 

  95. Pearlman J, Williams A, Simpson P (eds) (2013) Report of the research coordination network: RCN OceanObs Network: facilitating open exchange of data and information. NSF/Ocean Research Coordination Network Tech Rep. 46 pp

  96. Penev L, Erwin T, Mille J, Chaqvan V, Motitz T, Griswold C (2009) Publication and dissemination of dataset in taxonomy: ZooKeys working example. ZooKeys 11:1–8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  97. PILA, Inc (2013) CrossRef. http://www.crossref.org. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  98. Piwowar H (2011) Who shares? Who doesn’t? Factors associated with openly archiving raw research data. PLoS One 6(7):e18657

    Article  Google Scholar 

  99. Piwowar HA, Vision TJ (2013) Data reuse and the open data citation advantage. PeerJ 1:e175

    Article  Google Scholar 

  100. Piwowar HA, Day RS, Fridsma DB (2007) Sharing detailed research data is associated with increased citation rate. PLoS One 2(3):e308. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000308

    Article  Google Scholar 

  101. Planet OS (2014) Planet OS: Big data platform for multi-sensor and machine data. https://planetos.com/. Accessed 21 Sept 2014

  102. President Barack Obama (2013) Memorandum on open data policy–managing information as an asset (May 9, 2013). http://www.whitehouse.gov/sites/default/files/omb/memoranda/2013/m-13-13.pdf. Accessed 17 Sept 2014

  103. Reichman O, Jones M, Schildhauer M (2011) Challenges and opportunities of open data in ecology. Science 331(6018):703–705. doi:10.1126/science.1197962

    Article  Google Scholar 

  104. Research Information (2014) Taylor & Francis partners with figshare for supplementary data.http://www.researchinformation.info/news/news_story.php?news_id=1485. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  105. Research Councils UK (2014) http://www.rcuk.ac.uk/research/datapolicy. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  106. Research Data Alliance (2014). Research data sharing without barriers.https://www.rd-alliance.org. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  107. Research Information Network (2008). To share or not to share: publication and quality assurance of research data outputs. A report commissioned by the Research Information Network. http://www.rin.ac.uk/data-publication. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  108. Reuters T (2013) Science citation index. http://science.thomsonreuters.com/cgi-bin/jrnlst/jloptions.cgi?PC=K. Accessed 1 Mar 2014

  109. Reuters T (2014) The data citation index. http://wokinfo.com/products_tools/multidisciplinary/dci. Accessed 11 Mar 2014

  110. Sayogo DS, Pardo T (2012) Exploring the motive for data publication in open data initiative: Linking intention to action. In: Proceedings of the 45th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, IEEE Computer Society

  111. ScienceDirect (2014) http://www.sciencedirect.com. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  112. SCOR/MBLWHOI/IODE (2014) Data publication/data citation project. http://www.iode.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=110&Itemid=12. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  113. Sears J (2011) Data sharing effect on article citation rate in paleoceanography. ‪Eos, Trans. AGU‬, 92, Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract /IN53B-1628

  114. Silva L (2014) PLoS new data policy: public access to data. http://blogs.plos.org/everyone/2014/02/24/plos-new-data-policy-public-access-data-2. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  115. Smit E (2010) Preservation, access and re-use of research data. Presented at DataCite Summer Meeting 2010. https://www.datacite.org/datacite_summer_meeting_2010. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  116. SURF (2013) Enhanced publications. Collaborative organisation for ICT in Dutch higher education and research. http://www.surf.nl/en/themes/research/research-data-management/enhanced-publications. Accessed 15 Sept 2014

  117. Tenopir C, Allard S, Douglass K, Aydinoglu AU, Wu L, Read E, Manoff M, Frame M (2011) Data sharing by scientists: practices and perceptions. PLoS One 6(6):e21101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  118. Thessen A, Patterson D (2011) Data issues in the life sciences. ZooKeys 150:15–51. doi:10.3897/zookeys.150.1766

    Article  Google Scholar 

  119. Turnitsa C (2005) Extending the levels of conceptual interoperability model. In: Proceedings IEEE summer computer simulation conference, IEEE CS Press

  120. UKDS (2014) UK Data Service, Citing Data and Re-Share. http://ukdataservice.ac.uk/media/440282/publishingcitigdata.pdf. Accessed 10 Mar 2014

  121. US Congress (1980) Bayh-Dole act. Public Law 96–517, also known as the Patent and Trademark Law Amendments Act; enacted by the United States Congress.

  122. Vision T (2010) Open data and the social contract of scientific publishing. Bioscience 60(5):330–331. doi:10.1525/bio.2010.60.5.2

    Article  Google Scholar 

  123. W3C (2001) URIs, URLs, and URNs: Clarifications and recommendations 1.0. http://www.w3.org/TR/uri-clarification. Accessed 10 Mar 2014

  124. WDS (2014) Data Publication Working Group. http://icsu-wds.org/community/working-groups/data-publication. Accessed 10 Mar 2014

  125. Whiteside A, Evans JD (2006) Web coverage service implementation specification #06-083r8, version 1.1.0. https://portal.opengeospatial.org/files/?artifact_id=18153, Access 19 May 1024

  126. Whitfield P (2012) Why the provenance of data matters: assessing “fitness for purpose” for environmental data. Can Water Resour J 37(1):23–36. doi:10.4296/cwrj3701866

    Article  Google Scholar 

  127. Whitlock M (2011) Data archiving in ecology and evolution: best practices. Trends Ecol Evol 26(2):61–65. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2010.11.006

    Article  Google Scholar 

  128. WHOAS (2014) Woods Hole Open Access Server. https://darchive.mblwhoilibrary.org. Accessed 16 Sept 2014

  129. Wieczorek J, Bloom D, Guralnick R, Blum S, Döring M et al (2012) Darwin core: an evolving community-developed biodiversity data standard. PLoS One 7(1):e29715. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0029715

    Article  Google Scholar 

  130. Wiley (2014) Geoscience data journal. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1002/%28ISSN%292049-6060. Accessed 11 Mar 2014

  131. World Meteorological Organization (2014) Information management. http://www.wmo.int/pages/themes/wis/index_en.html. Accessed 11 Mar 2014

Download references

Acknowledgments

The authors would like to thank other members of the NSF Research Coordination Network “OceanObsNetwork”: Milton Kampel; Takeshi Kawano; Fred Maltz; Michael McCann; Benoit Pirenne; Peter Pissierssens; Iain Shepherd; Christoph Waldmann; and Albert Williams III, who contributed to the report that this paper summarizes and enhances (Pearlman et al. 2013). The authors acknowledge the support of the National Science Foundation through Grant Award No. OCE-1143683.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to James Gallagher.

Additional information

Communicated by: H. A. Babaie

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gallagher, J., Orcutt, J., Simpson, P. et al. Facilitating open exchange of data and information. Earth Sci Inform 8, 721–739 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12145-014-0202-2

Download citation

Keywords

  • Open data
  • Interoperability
  • Governance
  • Data publication