Assessment of the availability of near-real time open weather data provided by networks of surface stations in Spain


The aims of this research are: (i) to check availability of weather observations from automated stations in Spain, (ii) to qualitatively and quantitatively describe the networks identified, (iii) to analyze availability of the observations gathered for 3 different networks [two government (GOV): AEMET with national coverage and CASTILLA Y LEÓN on a regional level; and METEOCLIMATIC, a network of volunteer weather observation (VWO) stations on a national level], and (iv) to undertake a spatial redundancy and lacunarity analysis of them. The results reveal: the existence of heterogeneous VWO networks complementing the GOV, differences within and among networks as far as data acquisition frequency, varying delays in their publication, and semantic differences in the observations made. An inventory was made of 24 networks (16 GOV and 8 VWO) with 3,908 stations deployed in Spain. An analysis of observations from 3 networks reveals that 88 % of the stations in the volunteer network record more than two observations per hour. 56 % of the AEMET stations report more than 48 observations every day, 31 % report between 25 and 48 observations a day. Conversely, the CASTILLA Y LEÓN network records data every half hour. The redundancy analysis reveals a 3,429-drop in the number of unduplicated stations. Following the lacunarity analysis of spatial distribution, it is possible to conclude that 60.72 % of the cells do not contain any stations.

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Correspondence to Federico-Vladimir Gutierrez-Corea.

Additional information

Communicated by: H.A. Babaie

Annex. Lists of weather station networks and URLs of access

Annex. Lists of weather station networks and URLs of access

Table 10 Summary of Government Networks with area of influence beyond region
Table 11 Summary of Government Networks with area of influence lower than region
Table 12 Summary of VWO Networks with area of influence beyond region
Table 13 Summary of VWO Networks with area of influence lower than region

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Gutierrez-Corea, FV., Manso-Callejo, MA. & Vázquez-Hoehne, A. Assessment of the availability of near-real time open weather data provided by networks of surface stations in Spain. Earth Sci Inform 6, 145–163 (2013).

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  • Volunteers
  • Weather data
  • Surface stations
  • Lacunarity