Several recent false memory studies have addressed the question of how false memories are experienced phenomenologically. In this article we argue that it is not only possible to address questions of this sort, but it is necessary for a full understanding of memory illusions. We define memory illusions as false beliefs about the past that are experienced as memories. We then review a corpus of evidence that addresses the phenomenological experience of false memories. None of this evidence is perfect, but taken in its totality it suggests that false memories are similar to true memories but are also subtly different. We conclude with several recommendations for how the phenomenology of false memories can be fruitfully explored.
This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Alba, J. W., & Hasher, L. (1983). Is memory schematic? Psychological Bulletin 93: 203–231.
Anderson, R. E. (1984). Did I do it or did I only imagine doing it? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 113: 594–613.
Anisfeld, M., & Knapp, M. (1968). Association, synonymity, and directionality in false recognition. Journal of Experimental Psychology 77: 171–179.
Barclay, R. C, & DeCooke, P. A. (1988). Ordinary everyday memories: Some of the things which selves are made. In U. Neisser and E. Winograd (Eds.), Remembering Reconsidered (pp. 91–125). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Barclay, R. C, & Wellman, H. M. (1986). Accuracies and inaccuracies in autobiographical memories. Journal of Memory and Language 25: 93–103.
Bartlett, F. C. (1932). Remembering: A Study in Experimental and Social Psychology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Belli, R. F. (1989). Influences of postevent information: Misinformation interference and acceptance. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118: 72–85.
Belli, R., & Loftus, E. F. (1994). Recovered memories of childhood abuse: A source monitoring perspective. In S. J. Lynn & J. W. Rhue (Eds.), Dissociation: Clinical and Theoretical Perspectives (pp. 415–433). New York: Guilford Press.
Bonto, M. B., & Payne, D. G. (1991). Role of environmental context in eyewitness memory. American Journal of Psychology 104: 117–134.
Bouchard, E. (1932). Convicting the Innocent: Errors of Criminal Justice. New Haven, CT: Yale University Press.
Bower, G.H., Black, J.B. & Turner, TJ. (1979). Scripts in memory for text. Cognitive Psychology 11: 177–220.
Brainerd, C. J., & Mojardin. A. H. (1997).What is the nature of the verbatim traces? Manuscript submitted for publication.
Brainerd, C. J. & Reyna, V. F. (1990). Gist is the grist: Fuzzy-trace theory and the new intuitionism. Special Issue: Limited resource models of cognitive development. Developmental Review, 10, 3–47.
Brainerd, C. J., & Reyna, V. F. (1995). Autosuggestibility in memory development. Cognitive Psychology 28: 65–101.
Brainerd, C. J., Reyna, V. F., & Mojardin, A. H. (1996). Conjoint recognition. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Bransford, J. D., Barclay, J. R., & Franks, J. J. (1972). Sentence memory: A constructive versus interpretive approach. Cognitive Psychology 3: 193–209.
Bransford, J. D., & Franks, J. J. (1971). The abstraction of linguistic ideas. Cognitive Psychology 2: 331–350.
Brewer W. F. (1988). Memory for randomly sampled autobiographical events. In U. Neisser & E. Winograd (Eds.), Remembering Reconsidered (pp. 21–90). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Brewer W. F. (1992). Phenomenal experience in laboratory and autobiographical memory tasks. In M. A. Conway, D. C. Rubin, H Spinnler and H. A. Wagenaar (Eds.), Theoretical Perspectives on Autobiographical Memory (pp. 31–52). Netherlands: Kluwer.
Brewer, W. F., & Treyens, J. C. (1981). Role of schemata in memory for places. Cognitive Psychology 13: 207–230.
Brown, R., & Kulik, J. (1977). Flashbulb memories. Cognition 5: 73–99.
Bunuel, L. (1985). My Last Breath. London: Fontana.
Ceci, S. J., & Bruck, M. (1993). Suggestibility of the child witness: A historical review and synthesis. Psychological Bulletin 113:403–439.
Ceci, S. J., Crotteau-Huffman, M. L., & Smith E. (1994). Repeatedly thinking about a non-event: Source misattributions among preschoolers. Consciousness and Cognition 3: 388–407.
Ceci, S. J., Ross, D. F., & Toglia, M. P. (1987). Suggestibility of children's memory: Psycholegal implications. Journal of Experimental Psychology General 116: 38–49.
Ceci, S. J., Toglia, M. P., & Ross, D. F. (1990). Historical and cultural account of children's suggestibility. In R. Fivush & J. Hudson (Eds.), Third Annual Emory Cognition Symposium: Remembering in Naturalistic Contexts (pp. 285–297). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Chambers, K. L., & Zaragoza, M. S. (1993). The effect of source credibility and delay on eyewitness suggestibility. Paper presented at the Thirty-Fourth Annual Meeting of the Psychonomic Society, Washington, D.C.
Christiaansen, S. A. (1989). Flashbulb memories: Special, but not so special. Memory & Cognition 17: 435–443.
Christiaansen, R. E.,& Ochalek, K. (1983). Editing misleading information from memory: Evidence for the coexistence of original and postevent information. Memory & Cognition 11:467–475.
Conway, M. A. (1995). Flashbulb Memories. Hillsdale, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.
Deese, J. (1959). On the prediction of occurrence of particular verbal intrusions in immediate recall. Journal of Experimental Psychology 58: 17–22.
Dooling, D. J., & Christiaansen, R. E. (1977). Episodic and semantic aspects of memory for prose. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human, Learning and Memory 3:428–436.
Dunning, D., & Stern, L. B. (1994). Distinguishing accurate from inaccurate eyewitness identifications via inquiries about decision processes. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 67: 818–835.
Egan, D. E. (1958). Recognition memory and the operating characteristic (Technical Note AFCRTN 58-51). Bloomington: Indiana University Hearing and Communication.
Ericsson, K. A., & Simon, H. A. (1994). Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. Cambridge: MIT Press.
Flanagan, O. (1992). Consciousness reconsidered. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
Gallo, D. A., Roberts, M. J., & Seamon, J. G. (1997). Remembering words not presented in lists: Can we avoid creating false memories? Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 4: 271–276.
Gardiner, J. M.(1988). Functional aspects of recollective experience. Memory & Cognition 16: 309–313.
Gardiner, J.M. & Java, R.I. (1990). Recollective experience in word and nonword recognition. Memory and Cognition 18: 23–30
Gardiner, J. M., & Java, R. I. (1993). Recognizing and remembering. In A. F. Collins, S. E. Gathercole, M. A. Conway, & P. E. Morris, (Eds.), Theories of Memory (pp. 168–188). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Goodman, G. S., & Reed, R. S. (1986). Age differences in eyewitness testimony. Law and Human Behavior 10: 317–332.
Greene, E., Flynn, M. S., & Loftus, E. F. (1982). Inducing resistance to misleading information. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 21: 207–219.
Hall J. W., & Kozloff, E. E. (1970). False recognition as a function of number of presentations. American Journal of Psychology 83: 272–279.
Hasher, L., & Griffin, M. (1978). Reconstructive and reproductive processes in memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human, Learning, and Memory 4: 318–330.
Heimholte, H. (1971). The facts of perception. In R. Kahl (Ed.), Selected Writings of Herman von Helmholtz (p. 381). Middletown, CT: Wesleyan University Press.
Hintzman, D. L. (1988). Judgments of frequency and recognition memory in a multiple-trace memory model. Psychological Review 95: 528–551.
Hirshman, E, & Master, S. (1997). Modeling the conscious correlates of recognition memory: Reflections on the remember-know paradigm. Memory & Cognition 25: 345–351.
Huff, R., Rattner, A., & Sagarin, E. (1986). Guilty until proven innocent. Crime and Delinquency 32: 518–544.
Hyman, I. E., Husband, T. H. & Billings, F. J. (1995). False memories of childhood experiences. Applied Cognitive Psychology 9: 181–197.
Hyman, I. E., & Pentland, J. (1996). The role of mental imagery in the creation of false childhood memories. Journal of Memory and Language 35:101–117.
Hyman, I. E., Wilkinson, C. L., & Thorn, C. L. (1997). Individual differences and false autobiographical memories. Paper presented at the Second Biennial Conference of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (SARMAC), Toronto, Ontario.
Jacoby, L. L. (1991). A process dissociation framework: Separating automatic from intentional uses of memory. Journal of Memory and Language 30: 513–541.
Jacoby, L. L., Allan, L. G., Collins, J. C, & Larwill, L. K. (1988). Memory influences subjective experience: Noise judgments. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 14: 240–247.
Jacoby, L. L. & Dallas, M. (1981). On the relationship between autobiographical memory and perceptual learning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 110: 306–340.
Jacoby, L. L. Kelley, C. M., & Dywan, J. (1989). Memory attributions. In H. L. Roediger & F. I. M. Craik (Eds.), Varieties of Memory and Consciousness: Essays in Honour of Endel Tulving (pp. 391–421). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Jacoby, L. L. & Whitehouse, K. (1989). An illusion of memory: False recognition influenced by unconscious perception. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 118: 126–135.
Jacoby, L. L., Woloshyn, V., & Kelley, C. M. (1989). Becoming famous without being recognized: Unconscious influences of memory produced by dividing attention. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 118: 115–125.
Johnson, M. K. (1985). The origin of memories. In P. C. Kendall (Ed.), Advances in Cognitive-behavioral Research and Therapy (pp. 1–27). New York: Academic Press.
Johnson, M. K. (1988). Discriminating the origin of information. In T. F. Oltmanns. &. B. A. Mahler (Eds.), Delusional Beliefs: Interdisciplinary Perspective (pp. 34–65). New York: Wiley.
Johnson, M. K., Bransford, J. D., & Solomon, S. K. (1973). Memory for tacit implications of sentences. Journal of Experimental Psychology 98: 203–205.
Johnson, M. K., Foley, M. A., Suengas, A. G. & Raye, C. L. (1988). Phenomenal characteristics for perceived and imagined autobiographical events. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 117: 371–376.
Johnson, M. K., Hashtroudi, S., & Lindsay, D. S. (1993). Source monitoring. Psychological Bulletin 114: 3–28.
Johnson, M. K., & Raye, C. L. (1981). Reality monitoring. Psychological Review 88: 67–85.
Johnson, M. K., Taylor, T. H. & Raye, C. L. (1977). Fact and fantasy: The effects of internally generated events on the apparent frequency of externally generated events. Memory & Cognition 5: 116–122.
Kelley, C. M., & Jacoby, L. L. (1996). Adult egocentrism: Subjective experience versus analytic bases for judgment. Journal of Memory and Language 35: 157–175.
Kendler, H. J. (1987). Historical Foundations of Modern Psychology. Pacific Grove, California: Brooks/ Cole Publishing.
Koriat, A., & Goldsmith, M. (1996). Memory metaphors and the real life/laboratory controversy: Correspondence versus storehouse conceptions of memory. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 19:167–228.
Kosslyn, S. M., Ball, T. M., Reiser, B. J. (1978). Visual images preserve metric spatial information: Evidence from studies of image scanning. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 4: 47–60.
Lampinen, J. M. (1996). Recollections of things schematic: The influence of schemas on recollective experience. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois.
Lampinen, J. M., & Smith, V. L. (1995). The incredible (and sometimes incredulous) child witness: Child eyewitnesses' sensitivity to source credibility cues. Journal of Applied Psychology 80: 621–627.
Lampinen, J. M., Neuschatz, & J. S., Payne, D. G. (1997). Source attributions for false memories cannot be explained by demand characteristics. (Manuscript in preparation.)
Lampinen, J. M. & Thapar, A. (1997). Just how real are qualities of the unreal? (Manuscript in preparation.)
Lane, S. M., & Chambers, K. (1997). The effects of warnings on false memories. Paper presented at the Second Biennial Conference of the Society for Applied Research in Memory and Cognition (SARMAC), Toronto, Ontario.
Lane, S. M., & Zaragoza, M. S. (1995). The recollective experience of crossmodality confusion errors. Memory & Cognition 23: 607–610.
Lindsay, D. S. (1990). Misleading suggestions can impair eyewitnesses' ability to remember event details. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 16: 1077–1083.
Lindsay, D. S. (1994). Memory source monitoring and eyewitness testimony. In D. F. Ross, J. D. Read, and M. P. Toglia (Eds.), Adult Eyewitness Testimony (pp. 27–55). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Lindsay, D. S., & Johnson, M. K. (1989). The eyewitness suggestibility effect and memory for source. Memory & Cognition 17: 349–358.
Lindsay, D. S., & Kelley, C. M. (1996). Creating illusions of familiarity in a cued recall remember/know paradigm. Journal of Memory and Language 35: 197–211.
Lindsay, R. C. L., Wells, G. L., & Rumpel, C. (1981). Can people detect eyewitness identification accuracy within and across situations? Journal of Applied Psychology 66: 79–89.
Linton, M. (1975). Memory for real-world events. In D. A. Norman & D. E. Rumelhart (Eds.), Explorations in cognition (pp. 376–404). San Francisco: W. H. Freeman.
Linton, M. (1982). Transformations of memory in everyday life. In U. Neisser (Ed.), Memory Observed: Remembering in Natural Contexts (pp. 77–91). San Francisco: Freeman.
Linton, M. (1986). Ways of Searching Contents of Memory. In D. C. Rubin (Ed.), Autobiographical memory (pp. 50–67). New York: Cambridge University Press.
Loftus, E. F. (1993). The reality of repressed memories. American Psychologist 48: 518–537
Loftus, E. F., & Davies, G.M. (1984). Distortions in the memory of children. Journal of Social Issues 40: 51–67.
Loftus, E. F., Donders, K., Hoffman, H.G., & Schooler, J. W. (1989). Creating new memories that are quickly accessed and confidently held. Memory & Cognition 17: 607–616.
Loftus, E.F., & Ketcham, K. (1994). The Myth of Repressed Memory: False Memories and Allegations of Sexual Abuse. New York: St. Martins.
Loftus, E.F., Miller, D.G., & Burns, H.J. (1978). Semantic integration of verbal information into visual memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Learning and Memory: 4:19–31.
Loftus, E.F., & Palmer, J.C. (1974). Reconstruction of automobile destruction: An example of the interaction between language and memory. Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 13: 585–589.
Loftus, E.F., & Pickrell, J.E. (1995). The formation of false memories. Psychiatric Annals 25:270–275.
Loftus, E.F., Schooler, J., & Wagenaar, W. (1985). The fate of memory: Comment on McCloskey and Zaragoza. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114: 375–380.
Luus, C. A. E., & Wells, G. L. (1994). The malleability of eyewitness confidence: Co-witnessed and perseverance effects. Journal of Applied Psychology 79: 714–721.
Mandler, G. (1975). Consciousness: Respectable, useful, and probably necessary. In R. L. Solso (Ed.), Information processing and cognition: The Loyola symposium. Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Mandler, G. (1980). Recognizing: The judgment of previous occurrence. Psychological Review 67: 252–271.
Mather, M., Henkel, L. A., & Johnson, M. K. (in press). Evaluating characteristics of false memories: Remember/know judgments and memory characteristics questionnaire compared. Memory & Cognition.
Mitchell, T. R., & Richman, C. L. (1980). Confirmed reservations: Mental travel. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Human Perception and Performance 6: 58–66.
McCloskey, M., Wible, C. G. & Cohen, N. J. (1988). Is there a special flashbulb-memory mechanism? Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 117: 171–181.
McCloskey, M., & Zaragoza, M.S. (1985a). Misleading postevent information and memory for events: Arguments and evidence against memory impairment hypotheses. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114: 1–16.
McCloskey, M., & Zaragoza, M.S. (1985b). Postevent information and memory: Reply to Loftus, Schooler, and Wagenaar. Journal of Experimental Psychology: General 114: 381–387.
McDermott, K. B. (1996).The persistence of false memories in list recall. Journal of Memory and Language 35: 212–230.
Nakamura, G. V., Graesser, A. C, Zimmerman, J. A. & Riha, J.(1985). Script processing in a natural situation. Memory & Cognition 75:140–144.
Neisser, U. (1981). John Dean's memory: A case study. Cognition 9: 1–22.
Neisser, U. (1982). Snapshots or benchmarks? In U. Neisser (Ed.), Memory Observed: Remembering in Natural Contexts. San Francisco: Freeman.
Neisser, U. (1987). Concepts and Conceptual Development: Ecological and Intellectual Factors in Categorization. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Neisser, U., & Harsch, N. (1992). Phantom flashbulbs: False recollections of hearing the news about Challenger. In E. Winograd & U. Neisser (Eds.), Accuracy and Affect in Recall: Studies of Flashbulb Memories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Neuschatz, J. S., Payne, D. G., & Lampinen, J. M. (1997). Effects of warnings on the production of false memories. Manuscript submitted for publication.
Norman, K. A., & Schacter, D. L. (in press) False recognition in younger and older adults: Exploring the characteristics of illusory memories. Memory & Cognition.
Parkin, A. J., & Walter, B. (1992). Recollective experience, normal aging, and frontal dysfunction. Psychology and Aging 7: 290–298.
Parkin, A.J., & Russo, R.(1993). On the origin of functional differences in recollective experience. Memory 7:231–237.
Payne, D. G. & Blackwell. J. M. (in press). Truth in memory from human memory: Caveat emptor. In S. J. Lynn & N. P. Spanos (Eds.), Truth in Memory. New York: Guilford Press.
Payne, D. G., Elie C. J., Blackwell, J. M, & Neuschatz, J. S. (1996). Memory illusions: Recalling, Recollecting, and Recognizing events that never occurred. Journal of Memory and Language 35: 261–285.
Payne, D. G., Lampinen, J. M., & Cordero, M. L. (1996). Remberances of things not passed: Further evidence concerning false memories. Paper presented at the Thirty-Seventh Annual Meeting of the Psychnomics Society, Chicago, Illinois.
Payne, D. G., Neuschatz, J. S., Lampinen, J. M., & Lynn, S. J. (in press). Compelling memory illusions: The phenomenal qualities of false memories. Current Directions in Psychological Science.
Pezdek, K., Whetstone, T., Reynolds, K., Askari, N. & Dougherty, T. (1989). Memory for real-world scenes: The role of consistency with schema expectation. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory and Cognition 15: 587–595.
Piaget, J. (1962). Play, Dreams and Imitation in Childhood. New York: W. W. Norton.
Pigott, M. A., Brigham, J. C. & Bothwell, R. K. (1990). A field study on the relationship between quality of eyewitnesses' descriptions and identification accuracy. Journal of Police Science and Administration 17: 84–88.
Rajaram, S. (1993). Remembering and knowing: Two means of access to the personal past. Memory & Cognition 21: 89–102.
Rajaram, S. & Roediger, H. L. (1997). Remembering and knowing as states of consciousness during retrieval. In J. D. Cohen and J. W. Schooler (Eds.), Scientific Approaches to Consciousness (pp. 213–240). Mahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.
Raskin, D. C, & Esplin, P. W. (1991). Assessment of children's statements of sexual abuse. In J. Doris (Ed.), The Suggestibility of Children's Recollections (pp. 153–164). Washington, D.C.: American Psychological Association.
Read, J. D. (1996). From a passing thought to a false memory in 2 minutes: Confusing real and illusory events. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 3: 105–111.
Reed, S. K., Hock, H., & Lockhead, G. R. (1983). Tacit knowledge and the effect of pattern configuration on mental scanning. Memory & Cognition 11: 137–143.
Reisberg, D., (1996). Cognition: Exploring the Science of the Mind. New York: W. W. Norton.
Reyna, V. F., & Brainerd, C. J. (1992). A fuzzy-trace theory of reasoning and remembering: Paradoxes, patterns, and parallelism. In A. F. Healy, S. A. Kosslyn, & R. M. Shiffrin (Eds.), From Learning Processes to Cognitive Processes: Essays in Honor of William K. Estes (Vol. 2, pp. 235–260). Hillsdale, N.J.: Erlbaum.
Reyna, V. F., & Brainerd, C. J. (1995). Fuzzy-trace theory: An interim synthesis. Learning and Individual Differences 7: 1–75.
Reyna, V. F., & Lloyd, F. (1997). Theories of false memories in children and adults. Unpublished manuscript, University of Arizona.
Roediger, H. L. (1996). Memory illusions. Journal of Memory and Language 35: 76–100.
Roediger, H. L., & McDermott, K. B. (1995). Creating false Memories: Remembering words not presented in lists. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 21: 803–814.
Roediger, H. L., McDermott, K. B., & Goff, L. M. (1997). Recovery of true and false memories: Paradoxical effects of repeated testing. In M. A. Conway (Ed.), Recovered Memories and False Memories (pp. 118–149). Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Roediger, H. L., McDermott, K. B., & Robinson, K. J. (in press). The role of associative processes in creating false memories. In M. A. Conway, S. E. Gathercole, & C. Cornoldi (Eds.), Theories of Memory II. Hove, Sussex: Psychological Press.
Schacter, D. L., Verfaellie, M., & Pradere, D. (1996). The neuropsychology of memory illusions: False recall and recognition in amnesic patients. Journal of Memory and Language 35: 319–334.
Schooler, J. W., & Engstler-Schooler, T. Y. (1990). Verbal overshadowing and visual memories: Some things are left better unsaid. Cognitive Psychology 22: 36–71.
Schooler, J. W., Gerhard, D. & Loftus, E. F. (1986). Qualities of the unreal. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 12: 171–181.
Smith, M. E. (1993). Neurophysiological manifestations of recollective experience during recognition memory judgments. Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience 5: 1–13.
Smith, V. L., & Ellsworth, P. C. (1987). The social psychology of eyewitness accuracy: Misleading questions and communicator expertise. Journal of Applied Psychology 72: 294–300.
Sporer, S. L., Penrod, S., Read, J. D., & Cutler, B. (1995). Choosing, confidence, and accuracy: A meta-analysis of the confidence-accuracy relation in eyewitness identification studies. Psychological Bulletin 118:315–327.
Strack, F., & Forster, J. (1995). Reporting recollective experiences: Direct access to memory systems? Psychological Science 6: 352–358.
Studebaker, C. A., Lampinen, J. M., Smith, V. L. (1993). Communicator expertise influences the encoding of misinformation. Paper presented at the Fifth Annual Convention of the American Psychological Society, Chicago, Illinois.
Sulin, R. A., & Dooling, D. J. (1974). Intrusions of a thematic idea in retention of prose. Journal of Experimental Psychology 103: 255–262.
Thompson, C. P., & Cowan, T. (1986). Flashbulb memories: A nicer interpretation of a Neisser recollection. Cognition 22: 199–200.
Toglia, M.P., Ross, D.F., Ceci, S.J., & Hembrooke, H. (1992). Associates suggestibility of children's memory: A social-psychological and cognitive interpretation. In M. L. Howe, C. J. Brainerd, & V. F. Reyna (Eds.), Development of Long-term Retention (pp. 217–241). New York: Springer-Verlag.
Tulving, E. (1985). Memory and consciousness. Canadian Psychologist 26: 1–12.
Underwood, B. J. (1965). False recognition produced by implicit verbal responses. Journal of Experimental Psychology 70: 122–129.
Wells, G. L. (1984). The psychology of lineup identifications. Journal of Applied Social Psychology 14: 89–103.
Wells, G. L., Rydell, S. M., & Seelau, E. P. (1993). The selection of distracters for eyewitness lineups. Journal of Applied Psychology 78: 835–844.
Wertheimer, M. (1912). Experimentelle stuidien uber das Sehen von Beuegung. Zeitschrift fuer Psychologie 61: (161–265).
Wright, D. B. (1993). Recall of the Hillsboro disaster over time: Systematic biases of “flashbulb” memories. Applied Cognitive Psychology 7: 129–138.
Zaragoza, M. S., & Koshmider, J. W. in (1989). Misled subjects may know more than their performance implies. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 15:246–255.
Zaragoza, M. S., & Lane, S. M. (1994). Source misattributions and the suggestibility of eyewitness memory. Journal of Experimental Psychology: Learning, Memory, and Cognition 20: 934–945.
Zaragoza, M. S. & Mitchell, K. J. (1996). Repeated exposure to suggestion and the creation of false memories. Psychological Science 7: 294–300.
About this article
Cite this article
Lampinen, J.M., Neuschatz, J.S. & Payne, D.G. Memory illusions and consciousness: Examining the phenomenology of true and false memories. Curr Psychol 16, 181–224 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-997-1000-5
- False Memory
- Current Psychology
- Source Monitoring
- Critical Lure
- Perceptual Illusion