Motivation intensity differs across individuals. While prior work has examined how situational factors contribute to these discrepancies, the present work takes an individual differences approach. We developed a new tool to measure a novel construct we call “moxie” to assess individual differences in motivation intensity. Seven studies were conducted to examine the psychometric properties of the proposed Moxie Scale. A single factor structure was demonstrated through exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses, and the Moxie Scale was shown to have high internal consistency and strong test–retest reliability. Convergent, discriminant, criterion-related, and incremental validity were established by exploring associations between moxie and the Big Five personality traits, as well as related motivational constructs such as grit, self-control, volition and inhibition systems, and procrastination. Moxie also predicted intrinsic and extrinsic motivation above other motivational constructs. Finally, moxie predicted goal achievement over time and mediational analyses indicated that this occurred because those high in moxie invested more resources into their goal. Collectively, these findings suggest that moxie is an important and distinct motivational construct and offer new insights regarding individual differences in motivational intensity.
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The datasets generated during and/or analyzed during the current study are available in the Open Science Framework repository, https://osf.io/ytupn/
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Curtis, J., Hatvany, T., Barber, K.E. et al. Moxie: individual variability in motivation intensity. Curr Psychol 42, 22226–22238 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-022-03304-7