Aaronson, L. S., Teel, C. S., Cassmeyer, V., Neuberger, G. B., Pallikkathayil, L., Pierce, J., Press, A., & N., Williamsü P. D., Wingate, A. (1999). Defining and measuring fatigue. Journal of Nursing Scholarship, 31(1), 45–50.
Adams, M., Chase, J., Doyle, C., & Mills, J. (2020). Self-care planning supports clinical care: Putting total care into practice. Science and the Art of Caring, 28(5), 305–307. https://doi.org/10.1080/09699260.2020.1799815
Ahorsu, D. K., Lin, C. Y., Imani, V., Saffari, M., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). The fear of COVID-19 scale: Development and initial validation. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00270-8
Alexopoulos, G. S. (2020). Neurobiological targets of apathy can guide treatment development. The American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jagp.2020.06.023
Arpaci, İ., Karataş, K., & Baloğlu, M. (2020). The development and initial test for the psychometric properties of the COVID-19 phobia scale (C19P-S). Personality and Individual Differences. Advance Online Publication. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2020.110108
Arpaci, İ., Karatas, K., Baloglu, M., & Haktanir, A. (2021). COVID-19 phobia in the United States: Validation of the COVID-19 phobia scale (C19P-SE). Death Studies. Advance Online Publication. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1848945
Bakioğlu, F., Korkmaz, O., & Ercan, H. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 and positivity: Mediating role of ıntolerance of uncertainty, depression, anxiety, and stress. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00331-y
Bandalos, D. L. (2002). The effects of item parceling on goodness-of-fit and parameter estimate bias in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(1), 78–102. https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0901_5
Bitan, D. T., Grossman-Giron, A., Bloch, Y., Mayer, Y., Shiffman, N., & Mendlovic, S. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 scale: Psychometric characteristics, reliability and validity in the Israeli population. Psychiatry Research, 289. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113100
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1977). Toward an experimental ecology of human development. American Psychologist, 32, 513–531. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.32.7.513
Brown, T. A. (2006). Confirmatory factor analysis for applied research. Guilford Press.
Carleton, R. N. (2012). The intolerance of uncertainty construct in the context of anxiety disorders: Theoretical and practical perspectives. Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics, 12(8), 937–947. https://doi.org/10.1586/ern.12.82
Carleton, R. N., Norton, M. P. J., & Asmundson, G. J. (2007). Fearing the unknown: A short version of the Intolerance of Uncertainty Scale. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 21(1), 105–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2006.03.014
CBS New York. (2020). Pandemic burnout: Experts stress the importance of self-care and supporting others. Retrieved from https://newyork.cbslocal.com/video/4801960-pandemic-burnout-experts-stress-importance-of-self-care-and-supporting-others/
Ceri, V., & Cicek, I. (2021). Psychological well-being, depression and stress during COVID-19 pandemic in Turkey: A comparative study of healthcare professionals and non-healthcare professionals. Psychology, Health & Medicine, 26(1), 85–97. https://doi.org/10.1080/13548506.2020.1859566
Colizzi, M., Bortoletto, R., Silvestri, M., Mondini, F., Puttini, E., Cainelli, C., et al. (2020). Medically unexplained symptoms in the times of Covid-19 pandemic: A case-report. Brain, Behavior, and Immunity-Health. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbih.2020.100073
Del Valle, M. V., Andrés, M. L., Urquijo, S., Yerro-Avincetto, M., López-Morales, H., & Canet-Jurica, L. (2020). Intolerance of uncertainty over COVID-19 pandemic and its effect on anxiety and depressive symptoms. Revista Interamericana de Psicología/Interamerican Journal of Psychology, 54(2), 1–17.
Dsouza, D. D., Quadros, S., Hyderabadwala, Z. J., & Mamun, M. A. (2020). Aggregated COVID-19 suicide incidences in India: Fear of COVID-19 infection is the prominent causative factor. Psychiatry Research, 290. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113145
Dugas, M. J., Hedayati, M., Karavidas, A., Buhr, K., Francis, K., & Phillips, N. A. (2005). Intolerance of uncertainty and information processing: Evidence of biased recall and interpretations. Cognitive Therapy and Research, 29(1), 57–70. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10608-005-1648-9
Emir Öksüz, E., Kalkan, B., Can, N., & Haktanir, A. (2021). Adult mental health and loneliness during the COVID-19 pandemic in late 2020. European Journal of Psychology Open, 80, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1024/2673-8627/a000001
Field, A. (2013). Discovering statistics using IBM SPSS Statistics. (4th ed.), SAGE.
Fitzpatrick, K. M., Harris, C., & Drawve, G. (2020). Fear of COVID-19 and the mental health consequences in America. Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, 12(1), 17–21. https://doi.org/10.1037/tra0000924
Foa, R., Gilbert, S., & Fabian, M. O. (2020). COVID-19 and subjective well-being: Separating the effects of lockdowns from the pandemic. The Lancet. https://doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3674080
Freeston, M. H., Tiplady, A., Mawn, L., Bottesi, G., & Thwaites, S. (2020). Towards a model of uncertainty distress in the context of Coronavirus (Covid-19). Uncertainty Distress in Covid-19.
Gal, T. B., Avraham, B. B., Abu-Hazira, M., Frigerio, M., Crespo-Leiro, M. G., Oppelaar, A. M., et al. (2020). The consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic for self-care in patients supported with a Left Ventricular Assist Device. European Journal of Heart Failure. https://doi.org/10.1002/ejhf.1868
Gica, S., Kavakli, M., Durduran, Y., & Ak, M. (2020). The effect of COVID-19 pandemic on psychosomatic complaints and investigation of the mediating role of intolerance to uncertainty, biological rhythm changes and perceived COVID-19 threat in this relationship: A web-based community survey. Psychiatry and Clinical Psychopharmacology, 30(2), 89-96. https://doi.org/10.5455PCP20200514033022
Glowacz, F., & Schmits, E. (2020). Uncertainty and psychological distress during lockdown during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The young adults most at risk. Psychiatry Research, 29, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113486
Gülseren, G., Atun, Ç., Erol, A., Aydemir, Ö., Çelebisoy, M., & Kültür, S. (2001). Apati Degerlendirme Ölçegi Türkçe formunun geçerlilik ve güvenilirlik çalışması [The validity and reliability study of the Turkish version of the Apathy Assessment Scale]. Nöropsikiyatri Arsivi [Neuropsychiatry Archive], 38(3), 142–150.
Gürvit, I. H. (2014). Sosyal kognisyon veya fakülte psikolojisinin diyalektik sentezi olarak bir mental psikoloji/nörolojiye doğru [Social Cognition or Towards a Mental Psychology/Neurology as a Dialectical Synthesis of Faculty Psychology]. Noro-Psikyatri Arsivi [Archives of Neuropsychiatry], 51(4), 298–302. https://doi.org/10.5152/npa.2014.99
Haktanir, A., Seki, T., & Dilmaç, B. (2020). Adaptation and evaluation of Turkish version of the fear of COVID-19 Scale. Death Studies, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1773026
Harvey, N. (2020). Behavioral fatigue: Real phenomenon, naïve construct, or policy contrivance? Frontiers in Psychology, 11, 589892. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.589892
Hayes, A. F. (2018). Introduction to mediation, moderation, and conditional process analysis: A regression-based approach (7th ed.). Guilford publications.
Jakhar, D., & Kaur, I. (2020). Callous attitude toward doctors during COVID-19. Dermatologic Therapy. https://doi.org/10.1111/dth.13885
Jha, S., Shah, S., Calderon, M. D., Soin, A., & Manchikanti, L. (2020). The effect of COVID-19 on interventional pain management practices: A physician burnout survey. Pain Physician, 23, 271–282.
Kearney, B. Y., & Fleischer, B. J. (1997). Development of an instrument to measure exercise of self-care agency. Resarch in Nursing Health, 2(1), 25–34. https://doi.org/10.1002/nur.4770020105
Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practices of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). Guilford.
Koffman, J., Gross, J., Etkind, S. N., & Selman, L. (2020). Uncertainty and COVID-19: How are we to respond? Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine, 113(6), 211–216. https://doi.org/10.1177/0141076820930665
Larsen, E. M., Donaldson, K., & Mohanty, A. (2020). Conspiratorial thinking during COVID-19: The roles of paranoia, delusion-proneness, and intolerance to uncertainty. Conspiratorial Thinking During Covid-19, https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/mb65f
Levy, M. L., Cummings, J. L., Fairbanks, L. A., Masterman, D., Miller, B. L., Craig, A. H., et al. (1998). Apathy is not depression. The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 10(3), 314–319.
Lilleholt, L., Zettler, I., Betsch, C., & Böhm, R. (2020). Correlates and outcomes of pandemic fatigue. 1-50. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/2xvbr
Lin, C. Y., Broström, A., Griffiths, M. D., & Pakpour, A. H. (2020). Investigating mediated effects of fear of COVID-19 and COVID-19 misunderstanding in the association between problematic social media use, psychological distress, and insomnia. Internet Interventions, 21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.invent.2020.100345
Little, T. D., Rhemtulla, M., Gibson, K., & Schoemann, A. M. (2013). Why items versus parcels controversy needn’t be one. Psychological Methods, 18, 285–300.
Malach-Pines, A. (2005). The Burnout Measure Short version. International Journal of Stress Management, 12(1), 78–88. https://doi.org/10.1037/1072-5245.12.1.78
Mak, W. W., Law, R. W., Woo, J., Cheung, F. M., & Lee, D. (2009). Social support and psychological adjustment to SARS: The mediating role of self-care self-efficacy. Psychology and Health, 24(2), 161–174. https://doi.org/10.1080/08870440701447649
Mamun, M. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). First COVID-19 suicide case in Bangladesh due to fear of COVID-19 and xenophobia: Possible suicide prevention strategies. Asian Journal of Psychiatry, 51. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ajp.2020.102073
Marcus, J. (2020). Quarantine fatigue is real. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/05/quarantine-fatigue-real-and-shaming-people-wont-help/611482/
Marin, R. S. (1990). Differential diagnosis and classification of apathy. Am J Psychiatry, 147(1), 22–30.
Marin, R. S., Biedrzycki, R. C., & Firinciogullari, S. (1991). Reliability and validity of the Apathy Evaluation Scale. Psychiatry Research, 38(2), 143–162. https://doi.org/10.1016/0165-1781(91)90040-V
Maslach, C., & Leiter, M. P. (2016). Understanding the burnout experience: Recent research and its implications for psychiatry. World Psychiatry, 15(2), 103–111.
McKay, D., Minaya, C., & Storch, E. A. (2020). Conducting exposure and response prevention treatment for contamination fears during COVID-19: The behavioral immune system impact on clinician approaches to treatment. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 74, 1–4. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102270
Mertens, G., Gerritsen, L., Duijndam, S., Salemink, E., & Engelhard, I. M. (2020). Fear of the coronavirus (COVID-19): Predictors in an online study conducted in March 2020. Journal of Anxiety Disorders. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.janxdis.2020.102258
Michie, S., West, R., & Harvey, N. (2020). The concept of “fatigue” in tackling Covid-19. BMJ, 371, m4171. https://doi.org/10.1136/bmj.m4171
Moreno, C., Wykes, T., Galderisi, S., Nordentoft, M., Crossley, N., Jones, N., et al. (2020). How mental health care should change as a consequence of the COVID-19 pandemic. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(9), 813–824. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30307-2
Morgul, E., Bener, A., Atak, M., Akyel, S., Aktaş, S., Bhugra, D., Ventriglio, A., Jordan, T.R. (2020) COVID-19 pandemic and psychological fatigue in Turkey. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 1-8. 10:20764020941889. doi: 10.1177/0020764020941889.
Murphy, J.F.A. (2020). Pandemic fatigue. Irish Medical Journal, 113(6), 1-3. https://www.lenus.ie/bitstream/handle/10147/627889/Pandemic-Fatigue.pdf?sequence=1
Murthy, R. S. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and emotional health: Social psychiatry perspective. Indian Journal of Social Psychiatry, 36(5), 24–42. https://doi.org/10.4103/ijsp.ijsp_293_20
Nagasawa, S. (2020). Tolerance for uncertainty: A COVID-19 workbook: A guide to accept your feelings, tolerate distress, and thrive. Retrieved from https://hullservices.ca/wp-content/uploads/2020/04/Tolerance-for-Uncertainty-Workbook-2.pdf
Nahcivan, N. (1993). Sağlıklı gençlerde ‘öz-bakım gücü’ ve aile ortamının etkisi [The 'self-care power' and the impact of family environment in healthy young people]. Yayınlanmamış Doktora Tezi [Unpublished Doctoral Dissertation], Sağlık Bilimleri Enstitüsü [Health Sciences Institute], Istanbul Universitesi [Istanbul University], Istanbul, Turkey.
Nitschke, J.P., Forbes, P.A.G., Ali, N., Cutler, J., Apps, M.A.J., Lockwood, P.L., Lamm, C. (2020). Resilience during uncertainty? Greater social connectedness during COVID-19 lockdown is associated with reduced distress and fatigue. British Journal of Health Psychology, 1-17. https://doi.org/10.1111/bjhp.12485
Ornell, F., Schuch, J. B., Sordi, A. O., & Kessler, F. H. P. (2020). “Pandemic fear” and COVID-19: mental health burden and strategies. Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, 42(3), 232–235. https://doi.org/10.1590/1516-4446-2020-0008
Padala, P. R., Desouza, C. V., Almeida, S., Shivaswamy, V., Ariyarathna, K., Rouse, L., Burke, W. J., & Petty, F. (2008). The impact of apathy on glycemic control in diabetes: A cross-sectional study. Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice, 79, 37–41. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.diabres.2007.06.012
Pakpour, A. H., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). The fear of COVID-19 and its role in preventive behaviors. Journal of Concurrent Disorders. ISSN 2562-7546. http://irep.ntu.ac.uk/id/eprint/39561/
Pakpour, A. H., Griffiths, M. D., & Lin, C. Y. (2020). Assessing psychological response to the COVID-19: the fear of COVID-19 Scale and the COVID Stress Scales. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00334-9
Park, S. C., & Park, Y. C. (2020). Mental health care measures in response to the 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Korea. Psychiatry Investigation, 17(2), 85-86. doi: 10.30773/pi.2020.0058
Parlapani, E., Holeva, V., Nikopoulou, V. A., Sereslis, K., Athanasiadou, M., Godosidis, A., et al. (2020). Intolerance of uncertainty and loneliness in older adults during the COVID-19 pandemic. Frontiers in Psychiatry, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2020.00842
Person, B., Sy, F., Holton, K., Govert, B., & Liang, A. (2004). Fear and stigma: The epidemic within the SARS outbreak. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 10(2), 358. https://doi.org/10.3201/eid1002.030750
Peteet, J. R. (2020). COVID-19 Anxiety. Journal of Religion and Health, 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10943-020-01041-4
Queen, D., & Harding, K. (2020). Societal pandemic burnout: A COVID legacy. International Wound Journal, 17(4). https://doi.org/10.1111/iwj.13441
Rettie, H., & Daniels, J. (2020). Coping and tolerance of uncertainty: Predictors and mediators of mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic. American Psychologist. http://doi.org/10.1037/amp0000710
Reznik, A., Gritsenko, V., Konstantinov, V., Khamenka, N., & Isralowitz, R. (2020). COVID-19 fear in Eastern Europe: Validation of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00283-3
Rocha, C. M., & Chelladurai, P. (2012). Item parcels in structural equation modeling: An applied study in sport management. International Journal of Psychology and Behavioral Sciences, 2(1), 46–53. https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ijpbs.20120201.07
Rossell, S. L., Neill, E., Phillipou, A., Tan, E. J., Toh, W. L., Rheenen, T. E. V., & Meyer, D. (2021). An overview of current mental health in the general population of Australia during the COVID-19 pandemic: Results from the COLLATE project, Psychiatry Research, 296, 113660, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113660.
Sarıçam, H., Deveci, M., & Ahmetoğlu, E. (2020). The examination of hope, intolerance of uncertainty and resilience levels in parents having disabled children. Global Journal of Psychology Research: New Trends and Issues, 10(1), 118-131.https://doi.org/10.18844/gjpr.v10i1.4398
Satici, B., Saricali, M., Satici, S. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Intolerance of uncertainty and mental wellbeing: Serial mediation by rumination and fear of COVID-19. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00305-0
Sasangohar, F., Jones, S. L., Masud, F. N., Vahidy, F. S., & Kash, B. A. (2020). Provider burnout and fatigue during the COVID-19 pandemic: lessons learned from a high-volume intensive care unit. Anesthesia and Analgesia. 1-6. https://doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004866
Schumacker, R. E., & Lomax, R. G. (2010). A beginner’s guide to structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). Routledge.
Shigemura, J., Ursano, R. J., Morganstein, J. C., Kurosawa, M., & Benedek, D. M. (2020). Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Japan: Mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 74(4), 281–282. https://doi.org/10.1111/pcn.12988
Skorvanek, M., Rosenberger, J., Gdovinova, Z., Nagyova, I., Saeedian, R. G., Groothoff, J. W., & Dijk, J. P. (2013). Apathy in elderly nondemented patients with Parkinson's disease: clinical determinants and relationship to quality of life. Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry and Neurology, 26(4), 237–243. https://doi.org/10.1177/0891988713500587
Soraci, P., Ferrari, A., Abbiati, F. A., Del Fante, E., De Pace, R., Urso, A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2020). Validation and psychometric evaluation of the Italian version of the Fear of COVID-19 Scale. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 1-10. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-020-00277-1
Sultanov, S., Khodzhaeva, N., Ashurov, Z., Lyan, Y., & Shadmanova, L. (2020). Features of minor depressive disorder subtypes in conditions of COVID-19 pandemic. Indian Journal of Psychiatry, 62(9), 476-478. Available from: https://www.indianjpsychiatry.org/text.asp?2020/62/9/476/296518
Tanhan, A. (2020). Utilizing online photovoice (OPV) methodology to address biopsychosocial spiritual economic issues and wellbeing during COVID-19: Adapting OPV to Turkish. Turkish Studies, 15(4), 1029–1086. https://doi.org/10.7827/TurkishStudies.44451
Tanhan, A., Yavuz, K. F., Young, J. S., Nalbant, A., Arslan, G., Yıldırım, M., Ulusoy, S., Genç, E., Uğur, E., & Çiçek, İ. (2020). A proposed framework based on literature review of online contextual mental health services to enhance wellbeing and address psychopathology during COVID-19. Electronic Journal of General Medicine, 17(6), em254. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejgm/8316
Teng, Z., Wei, Z., Qiu, Y., Tan, Y., Chen, J., Tang, H., et al. (2020). Psychological status and fatigue of frontline staff two months after the COVID-19 pandemic outbreak in China: A cross-sectional study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 275, 247–252. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jad.2020.06.032
Van Reekum, R., Stuss, D. T., & Ostrander, L. (2005). Apathy: Why care? The Journal of Neuropsychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 17(1), 7–19.
Vindegaard, N., & Benros, M. E. (2020). COVID-19 pandemic and mental health consequences: Systematic review of the current evidence. Brain Behavior, and Immunity, 89, 531–542. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.048
Voitsidis, P., Gliatas, I., Bairachtari, V., Papadopoulou, K., Papageorgiou, G., Parlapani, E., et al. (2020). Insomnia during the COVID-19 pandemic in a Greek population. Psychiatry Research, 289, 1–2. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2020.113076
Williams, L. J., Vandenberg, R. J., & Edwards, J. R. (2009). 12 structural equation modeling in management research: A guide for improved analysis. The Academy of Management Annals, 3(1), 543–604. https://doi.org/10.1080/19416520903065683
Witteveen, D., & Velthorst, E. (2020). Economic hardship and mental health complaints during COVID-19. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(44), 27277–27284. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.2009609117
World Health Organization. (2009). Self-care in the context of primary health care (No. SEA-HSD-320). WHO Regional Office for South-East Asia.
World Health Organisation (2020). WHO Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) Dashboard https://covid19.who.int/
World Health Organization (2020). Pandemic fatigue -Reinvigorating the public to prevent COVID-19. https://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/handle/10665/335820/WHO-EURO-2020-1160-40906-55390-eng.pdf
Xiang, Y. T., Yang, Y., Li, W., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q., Cheung, T., & Ng, C. H. (2020). Timely mental health care for the 2019 novel Coronavirus outbreak is urgently needed. The Lancet Psychiatry, 7(3), 228–229. https://doi.org/10.1016/S2215-0366(20)30046-8
Yalçın, İ., Can, N., Mançe Çalışır, Ö., Yalçın, S., & Çolak, B. (2021). Latent profile analysis of COVID-19 fear, depression, anxiety, stress, mindfulness, and resilience. Current Psychology, 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-021-01667-x
Yıldırım, M., & Solmaz, F. (2020). COVID-19 burnout, COVID-19 stress and resilience: Initial psychometric properties of COVID-19 burnout scale. Death Studies, 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1080/07481187.2020.1818885
Zerbe, K. J. (2020). Pandemic Fatigue: Facing the Body’s Inexorable Demands in the Time of COVID-19. Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association, 68(3), 475–478. https://doi.org/10.1177/0003065120938774
Zou, S., Liu, Z. H., Yan, X., Wang, H., Li, Y., Xu, X., Du, X., Zhang, L., Zhang, Q., Jackson, T., Ungvari, G. S., & Xiang, Y. T. (2020). Prevalence and correlates of fatigue and its association with quality of life among clinically stable older psychiatric patients during the COVID-19 outbreak: a cross-sectional study. Globalization and Health, 16(1), 1–7. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12992-020-00644-6