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Table 3 Fit comparison for different HSPS factor solutions

From: A psychometric evaluation of the Highly Sensitive Person Scale in ethnically and culturally heterogeneous South African samples

Model Reference χ2 df χ2/df p value SRMR RMSEA TLI AIC BIC *
Student
  One factor Aron and Aron 1997 1908.54 324 5.89 < .001 .070 .081 .644 74,786 75,161
  Two factor Evans and Rothbart 2008 1428.51 274 5.21 < .001 .076 .073 .722 68,908 69,260
  Three factor Smolewska et al. 2006 1138.35 227 5.02 < .001 .081 .073 .703 64,219 64,551
  Four factor Şengül-İnal and Sümer 2017 1282.47 293 4.38 < .001 .054 .062 .767 74,009 74,490
  Bifactor Lionetti et al. 2018 1085.23 301 3.61 < .001 .054 .062 .810 74,009 74,490
  Five factor Study 2 454.68 160 2.84 < .001 .047 .050 .909 53,977 54,300
General population
  One factor   2173.39 324 6.71 < .001 .060 .064 .713 149,646 150,071
  Two factor   1636.24 274 5.97 < .001 .057 .060 .773 138,321 138,719
  Three factor   1335.49 227 5.88 < .001 .060 .059 .765 128,289 128,667
  Four factor   1412.22 293 4.82 < .001 .056 .052 .820 143,194 143,635
Bifactor   1137.01 301 3.77 < .001 .045 .045 .861 148,656 149,201
  Five factor Study 3 613.38 160 3.83 < .001 .040 .045 .902 109,740 110,107
  1. *SRMR Standardised Root Mean square Residual, RMSEA Root Mean Square Error of Approximation, TLI Tucker-Lewis Index, AIC Akaike Information Criterion, BIC Bayesian Information Criterion