Skip to main content

The effectiveness of self-healing (the healing codes) training on psychological capital and distress tolerance in women with addicted husbands


The present study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of self-healing on psychological capital and distress tolerance in women with addicted husbands. The research method was quasi-experimental with a pre-test, post-test and follow-up design and control group. The statistical population consisted of all women who had husbands with substance use disorder (SUD) as members of the anonymous addicts’ family group (Nar-Anon group) in Isfahan, Iran in 2019. Among them, 30 women who were willing to participate in the project, were selected by convenience sampling and divided into experimental (n = 15) and control (n = 15) groups. The research instrument included Psychological Capital Questionnaire (PCQ) and Distress Tolerance Questionnaire (DTQ). The experimental group underwent 14 sessions (90-min session per week) of self-healing training; and both groups underwent the post-test a week after the intervention. The follow-up was performed after 45 days. Analysis of the data involved both descriptive and inferential statistics including mean, standard deviation, and the repeated measures ANOVA. Data analysis was done using SPSS version 24. The self-healing training had a significant effect on psychological capital and distress tolerance in women with addicted husbands (p < 0.05). The results also remained unchanged at the follow-up stage. In conclusion, self-healing was effective in promoting psychological capital and distress tolerance in women with addicted husbands and can be used as a new approach in the world to increase the mental and physical health of addicts’ families in health centers.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.


  1. Abolghasemi, S., Fallahi, S., Babay, T., & Hojjat, S. (2012). Comparing the effectiveness of encouraging training and life skills training on self- efficacy of addicts’ wives. Journal of North Khorasan University of Medical Sciences, 4(3), 293–300.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Adams, P. J. (2015). Switching to a social approach to addiction: Implications for theory and practice. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14, 86–94.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  3. Andoh-Arthur, J., Hjelmeland, H., Osafo, J., & Knizek, B. L. (2020). Substance use and suicide among men in Ghana: A qualitative study. Current Psychology, 2020.

  4. Askian, P., Krauss, S. E., Baba, M., Kadir, R. A., & Masoumian Sharghi, H. (2018). Recovering from co-dependence: A study of Iranian wives of persons with substance use disorder. Current Psychology.

  5. Chen, Q., Kong, Y., Niu, J., Gao, W., Li, J., & Li, M. (2019). How leaders’ psychological capital influences their followers’ psychological capital: Social exchange or emotional contagion. Frontiers in Psychology, 10(1578).

  6. Clark, D. A., & Beck, A. T. (2011). Cognitive therapy of anxiety disorders: Science and practice. New York: Guilford Press.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Garland, E. L., & Howard, M. O. (2018). Mindfulness-based treatment of addiction: Current state of the field and envisioning the next wave of research. Addiction Science & Clinical Practice, 13(1), 14.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Jamilian, H. R., Malekirad, A. A., Farhadi, M., Habibi, M., & Zamani, N. (2014). Effectiveness of group dialectical behavior therapy (based on core distress tolerance and emotion regulation components) on expulsive anger and impulsive behaviors. Global Journal of Health Science, 6(7), 116–123.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  9. Joolaee, S., Fereidooni, Z., Fatemi, N. S., Meshkibaf, M. H., & Mirlashri, J. (2014). Exploring needs and expectations of spouses of addicted men in Iran: A qualitative study. Global Journal of Health Science, 6, 132–141.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Keough, M. E., Riccardi, C. J., Timpano, K. R., & Mitchell, M. A. (2010). Anxiety symptomatology: The association with distress tolerance and anxiety sensitivity. Behavior Therapy, 41, 567–600.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. Khodayarifard, M., & Sohrabpour, G. (2018). Effectiveness of narrative therapy in groups on psychological well-being and distress of Iranian women with addicted husbands. Addiction and Health, 10(1), 1–10.

    PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Latifi, Z., & Marvi, M. (2020). Self-healing (self-healing with the healing codes) in the treatment room (p. 2020). Tehran: Jahad Daneshgahi Publication (In Persian).

  13. Latifi, Z., Soltani, M., & Mousavi, S. (2020). Evaluation of the effectiveness of self-healing training on self-compassion, body image concern, and recovery process in patients with skin cancer. Complementary Therapies in Clinical Practice, 40, 101180.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Lipton, B. (2016). The biology of belief 10th anniversary edition: Unleashing the power of consciousness, matter & miracles. Publisher: Hay House Inc.; Anniversary edition, October 11, 2016.

  15. Liu, S., Zou, X., Huang, X., Liu, Y., Lu, Q., & Ling, L. (2020). The association between living status transitions, behavior changes and family relationship improvement among methadone maintenance treatment participants in Guangdong, China. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 17, 119.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Loyd, A., & Johnson, B. (2005). The healing codes, in: Unlocking the cellular sequence of life, light of man ministries. New York.

  17. Loyd, A., & Johnson, B. (2011). The healing code: 6 minutes to heal the source of your health, success, or relationship issue. In: Grand central life & style. New York: Hachette Book Group, pp. 15–40. First book edition: February.

  18. Luthans, F., Avolio, B. J., Avey, J. B., & Norman, S. M. (2007). Positive psychological capital: Measurement and relationship with performance and satisfaction. Personnel Psychology, 60, 541–572.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Mancenido, A., Williams, E. C., & Hajat, A. (2020). Examining psychological distress across intersections of immigrant generational status, race, poverty, and gender. Community Mental Health Journal, 2020.

  20. Moshavery, M., & Latifi, Z. (2019). Effectiveness of narrative therapy in generalized anxiety and stress coping skills among addicts' wives under treatment in addiction treatment clinics. Research on Addiction, 12(48), 103-118.

  21. Naylor, M. E., & Lee, B. K. (2010). The dawn of awareness: women’s claiming of self in couple relationship with substance abusers. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 9, 627–644.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  22. Nikbakht Nasrabadi, A., Pashaei Sabet, F., & Bastami, A. (2016). Life experiences of addicted wife: A qualitative study. Iranian Journal of Nursing Research, 11(1), 62–75.

    Google Scholar 

  23. Rajabizadeh, G., Rajabizadeh, Z., Shokouhi Moghadam, S., & Vafadoost, Z. (2019). The relationship between dysfunctional attitudes and communication skills of women with an addicted husband on the verge of divorce. Addiction and Health, 11(1), 51–57.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Sadeghi, H., Ebrahimi, L., & Vatandoust, L. (2015). Effectiveness of hope therapy protocol on depression and hope in amphetamine users. International Journal of High-Risk Behaviors and Addiction, 4(4), e21905.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Shahbazirad, A., & Azizi, M. (2019). Effectiveness of teaching emotion regulation strategies in improving cognitive-emotional regulation among female students in addiction-stricken areas of Kermanshah city. Journal of Family and Reproductive Health, 12(4), 204–209

    Google Scholar 

  26. Simons, J. S., & Gaher, R. M. (2005). The distress tolerance scale: Development and validation of a self-report measure. Motivation and Emotion, 29(2), 83–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  27. Tzeng, H. M. (2020). Do self-healing and self-care mean the same thing? Holistic Nursing Practice, 34(3), 150–154.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Vanno, V., Kaemkate, W., & Wongwanich, S. (2015). Effect of group-level positive psychological capital on group effectiveness of Thai students. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 171, 1309–1314.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Vujanovic, A. A., Dutcher, C. D., & Berenz, E. C. (2017). Multimodal examination of distress tolerance and posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms in acute-care psychiatric inpatients. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 48, 45–53.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references


No funding.

Author information



Corresponding author

Correspondence to Zohreh Latifi.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

All the authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Informed Consent

Questionnaires were filled with the parents’ satisfaction and written informed consent was obtained from the parents of the students to participate in this study.

Ethical Considerations

The study was approved by the Ethical Committee of Payame Noor University (IR.PNU.REC.1398.072).

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Zarean, F., Latifi, Z. The effectiveness of self-healing (the healing codes) training on psychological capital and distress tolerance in women with addicted husbands. Curr Psychol (2020).

Download citation


  • Self-healing
  • Psychological capital
  • Distress tolerance
  • Substance use disorder
  • Women