Exploration of the socio-cognitive processes underlying paruresis and parcopresis
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To date, research exploring the socio-cognitive processes associated with paruresis and parcopresis symptomology is lacking. The current study aimed to investigate how the socio-cognitive processes dysfunctional attitudes (DAs) and fear of negative and positive evaluation (FNE and FPE respectively) relate to paruresis and parcopresis symptomology. In total, 254 undergraduate students (74.0% female; mean age = 31.67 years) completed a cross-sectional online study. A structural equation model indicated the data fit reasonably well (χ2 p value = .209, CMIN/df = 1.514, CFI = .995, TLI = .983, RMSEA = .045, SRMR = .0272), with FPE mediating the relationship between DAs and paruresis symptom severity (p = .001) along with parcopresis symptom severity (p = .001). However, secondary analyses identified that FPE and FNE act as mediators between DAs and paruresis and parcopresis symptom severity when placed in separate models. This is the first study to provide evidence that the psychosocial-cognitive processes DAs and fear of evaluation play an important role in paruresis and parcopresis symptomology. Although this research should be replicated, the current study provides evidence that DAs, and FPE are important contributory factors in paruresis and parcopresis symptoms.
KeywordsParuresis Parcopresis Psychopathology Socio-cognitive Psychosomatic
We would like to thank all participants who took part in our study.
This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the public, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors. This research was conducted through the support of the Australian Government Research Training Program Scholarship.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
Kenley L. J. Kuoch, Sarina Cook, Denny Meyer, David W. Austin, and Simon R. Knowles declare that they have no conflicts of interest to disclose.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
No animal studies were carried out by the authors for this article.
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