Investigating the measurement structure of the Turkish version of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale-9

  • Cahit KayaEmail author
  • Fong Chan
  • Dana Brickham
  • Mickey Allen
  • Enver Sarı
  • Mustafa Şanal
  • Temel Topal


The Turkish version of the Dysfunctional Attitudes Scale-9 (DAS-9) items assesses an individual’s level of endorsement of dysfunctional attitudes associated with depression. The purpose of this study was to evaluate factorial reliability and validity of the Turkish version of the DAS-9. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses and the MIMIC model were used to investigate the psychometric properties of the DAS-9. The exploratory factor analysis results indicated a two-factor structure: (a) personal/internal rigid thoughts, and (b) dysfunctional thoughts involving other people and the external world. Participants at a high risk for depression endorsed the factor scores significantly higher than participants at a lower risk. Overall, the results suggest that the scale is a reliable and valid measure that can be used by clinicians and researchers to measure level of dysfunctional attitudes.


Dysfunctional attitudes Depression Factor analysis College students 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declared that they have no conflict of interest.

Supplementary material

12144_2019_252_MOESM1_ESM.docx (13 kb)
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Giresun UniversityGiresunTurkey
  2. 2.University of Wisconsin-MadisonMadisonUSA
  3. 3.Western Washington UniversityBellinghamUSA
  4. 4.Spectrum Rehabilitation and CounselingTucsonUSA

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