Parental smoking, changes in smoker image, and susceptibility to smoking in nonsmoking 10- to 12-year-olds

Abstract

The current study was designed to investigate whether parental cigarette smoking is associated with increased positivity in the smoker image during early adolescence. Participants (n = 432) were surveyed about parental smoking, smoker image, and susceptibility to smoking for three consecutive years beginning at age 10. Parental smoking was related to developmental increases in a positive smoker image. In addition, the slope of smoker image from age 10 to 12 was positively related to smoking susceptibility at age 12. Thus, before children are exposed to smoking peers, parental smoking is a risk factor for developing a positive smoker image and smoking onset.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

References

  1. Aloise-Young, P., & Hennigan, K. (1996). Self-image, the smoker stereotype and cigarette smoking: Developmental patterns from fifth through eighth grade. Journal of Adolescence, 19(2), 163–177. https://doi.org/10.1006/jado.1996.0016.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Aloise-Young, P., Hennigan, K., & Graham, J. (1996). Role of the self-image and smoker stereotype in smoking onset during early adolescence: A longitudinal study. Health Psychology, 15(6), 494–497. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.15.6.494.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Aloise-Young, P., Slater, M., & Cruickshank, C. (2006). Mediators and moderators of magazine advertisement effects on adolescent cigarette smoking. Journal of Health Communication, 11(3), 281–300. https://doi.org/10.1080/10810730600613955.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Andrews, J., & Peterson, M. (2006). The development of social images of substance users in children: A Guttman unidimensional scaling approach. Journal of Substance Use, 11(5), 305–321. https://doi.org/10.1080/1465980500419774.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  5. Andrews, J., Hampson, S., Barckley, M., Gerrard, M., & Gibbons, F. (2008). The effect of early cognitions on cigarette and alcohol use during adolescence. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22(1), 96–106. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-164X.22.1.96.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  6. Bandura, A. (1986). Social foundations of thought and action: A social cognitive theory.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Best, J. A., Thomson, S. J., Santi, S. M., Smith, E. A., & Brown, K. S. (1988). Preventing cigarette smoking among school children. Annual Review of Public Health, 9(1), 161–201.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  8. Blanton, H., Gibbons, F., Gerrard, M., Conger, K., & Smith, G. (1997). Role of family and peers in the development of prototypes associated with substance use. Journal of Family Psychology, 11(3), 271–288. https://doi.org/10.1037/0893-3200.11.3.271.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  9. Bollen, K., & Curran, P. (2006). Latent curve models: A structural equation perspective.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Chassin L, Presson CC. (2003). Parental smoking cessation and adolescent smoking: A commentary on Bricker et al. Addiction, 98(5):595–596. https://ezproxy2.library.colostate.edu/login?url=http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&AuthType=cookie,ip,url,cpid&custid=s4640792&db=cin20&AN=106851544&site=ehost-live. Accessed 1 Feb 2019.

  11. Choi, W., Gilpin, E., Farkas, A., & Pierce, J. (2001). Determining the probability of future smoking among adolescents. Addiction, 96(2), 313–323. https://doi.org/10.1080/09652140020021053.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Dong, Y., & Peng, C. Y. (2013). Principled missing data methods for researchers. Springerplus., 2(1), 222. Published 2013 May 14. https://doi.org/10.1186/2193-1801-2-222.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  13. Evans, W., Powers, A., Hersey, J., & Renaud, J. (2006). The influence of social environment and social image on adolescent smoking. Health Psychology, 25(1), 26–33. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.25.1.26.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Farrelly, M., Healton, C., Davis, K., Messeri, P., Hersey, J., & Haviland, M. (2002). Getting to the truth: Evaluating national tobacco countermarketing campaigns. American Journal of Public Health, 92(6), 901–907. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.92.6.901.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  15. Fearnow, M., Chassin, L., Presson, C. C., & Sherman, S. J. (1998). Determinants of parental attempts to deter their children’s cigarette smoking. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 19(3), 453–468. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0193-3973(99)80050-1.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  16. Forrester, K., Biglan, A., Severson, H., & Smolkowski, K. (2007). Predictors of smoking onset over two years. Nicotine & Tobacco Research, 9(12), 1259–1267. https://doi.org/10.1080/14622200701705357.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  17. Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F., Stock, M., Vande Lune, L., & Cleveland, M. (2005). Images of smokers and willingness to smoke among African American pre-adolescents: An application of the prototype/willingness model of adolescent health risk behavior to smoking initiation. Journal of Pediatric Psychology, 30(4), 305–318. https://doi.org/10.1093/jpepsy/jsi026.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Gerrard, M., Gibbons, F., Houlihan, A., Stock, M., & Pomery, E. (2008). A dual-process approach to health risk decision making: The prototype willingness model. Developmental Review, 28(1), 29–61. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2007.10.001.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Gibbons, F., Gerrard, M., Lune, L., Wills, T., Brody, G., & Conger, R. (2004). Context and cognitions: Environmental risk, social influence, and adolescent substance use. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(8), 1048–1061. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167204264788.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Gilman, S., Rende, R., Niaura, R., et al. (2009). Parental smoking and adolescent smoking initiation: An intergenerational perspective on tobacco control. Pediatrics, 123(2), e274–e281. Available from: PsycINFO, Ipswich, MA. Accessed 7 Nov 2017. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2008-2251.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  21. Henriksen, L., & Jackson, C. (1998). Anti-smoking socialization: Relationship to parent and child smoking status. Health Communication, 10(1), 87–101. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327027hc1001.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Henriksen, L., Schleicher, N., Feighery, E., & Fortmann, S. (2010). A longitudinal study of exposure to retail cigarette advertising and smoking initiation. Pediatrics, 126(2), 232–238. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2009-3021.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  23. Hovanec, J., Siemiatycki, J., Conway, D. I., Olsson, A., Stücker, I., Guida, F., Jöckel, K. H., Pohlabeln, H., Ahrens, W., Brüske, I., Wichmann, H. E., Gustavsson, P., Consonni, D., Merletti, F., Richiardi, L., Simonato, L., Fortes, C., Parent, M. E., McLaughlin, J., Demers, P., Landi, M. T., Caporaso, N., Tardón, A., Zaridze, D., Szeszenia-Dabrowska, N., Rudnai, P., Lissowska, J., Fabianova, E., Field, J., Dumitru, R. S., Bencko, V., Foretova, L., Janout, V., Kromhout, H., Vermeulen, R., Boffetta, P., Straif, K., Schüz, J., Kendzia, B., Pesch, B., Brüning, T., & Behrens, T. (2018). Lung cancer and socioeconomic status in a pooled analysis of case-control studies. PLoS One, 13(2), e0192999. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0192999.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  24. Jackson, C. (1998). Cognitive susceptibility to smoking and initiation of smoking during childhood: A longitudinal study. Preventive Medicine, 27, 129–134. https://doi.org/10.1006/pmed.1997.0255.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Jackson, C., & Dickinson, D. (2003). Can parents who smoke socialise their children against smoking? Results from the smoke-free kids intervention trial. Tobacco Control, 12, 52–59.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  26. Jackson, C., & Henriksen, L. (1997). Do as I say: Parent smoking, antismoking socialization, and smoking onset among children. Addictive Behaviors, 22(1), 107–114.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Kodl, M., & Mermelstein, R. (2004). Beyond modeling: Parenting practices, parental smoking history, and adolescent cigarette smoking. Addictive Behaviors, 29(1), 17–32. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(03)00087-X.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Leatherdale, S., McDonald, P., Cameron, R., Jolin, M., & Brown, K. (2006). A multi-level analysis examining how smoking friends, parents, and older students in the school environment are risk factors for susceptibility to smoking among non-smoking elementary school youth. Prevention Science, 7(4), 397–402. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11121-0060049-y.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Leonardi-Bee, J., Jere, M. L., & Britton, J. (2011). Exposure to parental and sibling smoking and the risk of smoking uptake in childhood and adolescence: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Thorax., 66(10), 847–855.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Mays, D., Gilman, S. E., Rende, R., Luta, G., Tercyak, K. P., & Niaura, R. S. (2014). Parental smoking exposure and adolescent smoking trajectories. Pediatrics, 133(6), 983–991. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2013-3003.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  31. McArdle, J. (1988). Dynamic but structural equation modeling of repeated measures data. In R. B. Cattel & J. Nesslroade (Eds.), Handbook of multivariate experimental psychology (2nd ed., pp. 561–614). New York: Plenrun Press.

    Google Scholar 

  32. Mercken, L., Sleddens, E. F. C., de Vries, H., & Steglich, C. E. G. (2013). Choosing adolescent smokers as friends: The role of parenting and parental smoking. Journal of Adolescence, 36(2), 383–392. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2012.12.004.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. O’Loughlin, J., O’Loughlin, E. K., Wellman, R. J., Sylvestre, M.-P., Dugas, E. N., Chagnon, M., et al. (2017). Predictors of cigarette smoking initiation in early, middle, and late adolescence. Journal of Adolescent Health, 61(3), 363–370. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2016.12.026.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Pardini, D., Loeber, R., & Stouthamer-Loeber, M. (2005). Developmental shifts in parent and peer influences on Boys' beliefs about delinquent behavior. Journal of Research on Adolescence, 15(3), 299–323. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1532-7795.2005.00098.x.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Pierce, J., Choi, W., Gilpin, E., Farkas, A., & Merritt, R. (1996). Validation of susceptibility as a predictor of which adolescents take up smoking in the United States. Health Psychology, 15(5), 355–361. https://doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.15.5.355.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Piko, B., Bak, J., & Gibbons, F. (2007). Prototype perception and smoking: Are negative or positive social images more important in adolescence? Addictive Behaviors, 32(8), 1728–1732. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2006.12.003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Polańska, K., Wojtysiak, P., Bąk-Romaniszyn, L., & Kaleta, D. (2016). Susceptibility to cigarette smoking among secondary and high school students from a socially disadvantaged rural area in Poland. Tobacco Induced Diseases, 14, 28. Published 2016 Aug 15. https://doi.org/10.1186/s12971-016-0092-9.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  38. Prokhorov, A., de Moor, C., Hudmon, K., Hu, S., Kelder, S., & Gritz, E. (2002). Predicting initiation of smoking in adolescents: Evidence for integrating the stages of change and susceptibility to smoking constructs. Addictive Behaviors, 27(5), 697–712. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0306-4603(01)00203-9.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  39. Rosa, J., Aloise-Young, P., & Henry, K. (2014). Using motives for smoking to distinguish between different college student smoker typologies. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 28(4), 1297–1304. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0038355.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  40. Schuck, K., Otten, R., Engels, R. E., & Kleinjan, M. (2012). The role of environmental smoking in smoking-related cognitions and susceptibility to smoking in never-smoking 9–12year-old children. Addictive Behaviors, 37(12), 1400–1405. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.addbeh.2012.06.019.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Spijkerman, R., Van Den Eijnden, R., & Engels, R. (2007). Perceptions of smoking and nonsmoking peers: The value of smoker and nonsmoker prototypes in predicting smoking onset and regular smoking among adolescents. Health Education & Behavior, 34(6), 897–910. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198106294642.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2014). The health consequences of smoking: 50 years of Progress. A report of the surgeon general. Atlanta: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.

    Google Scholar 

  43. van Lettow, B., de Vries, H., Burdorf, A., & van Empelen, P. (2016). Quantifying the strength of the associations of prototype perceptions with behaviour, behavioural willingness and intentions: A meta-analysis. Health Psychology Review, 10(1), 25–43. https://doi.org/10.1080/17437199.2014.941997.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Vidrine, J. I., Reitzel, L. R., & Wetter, D. W. (2009). Tobacco’s role in Cancer health disparities. Current Oncology Reports, 11(6), 475–481.

    Article  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  45. Weinstein, S., Mermelstein, R., Hedeker, D., Hankin, B., & Flay, B. (2006). The time-varying influences of peer and family support on adolescent daily positive and negative affect. Journal of Clinical Child and Adolescent Psychology, 35(3), 420–430. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15374424jccp3503_7.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  46. Wellman, R., Dugas, E., O'Loughlin, J., et al. (2016). Predictors of the onset of cigarette smoking: A systematic review of longitudinal population-based studies in youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 51(5), 767–778. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.amepre.2016.04.003.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Widaman, K., Ferrer, E., & Conger, R. (2010). Factorial invariance within longitudinal structural equation models: Measuring the same construct across time. Child Development Perspectives, 4(1), 10–18. Available from: PsycINFO, Ipswich, MA. Accessed 7 Nov 2017. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1750-8606.2009.00110.x.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

This research was supported by the Colorado Tobacco Research Program grant 1R-0033 and by NIDA grant 1K01DA14271-01A1.

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Patricia A. Aloise-Young.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

The authors have no conflict of interest to declare.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Aloise-Young, P.A., Rosa, J.D. Parental smoking, changes in smoker image, and susceptibility to smoking in nonsmoking 10- to 12-year-olds. Curr Psychol (2019). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-019-00223-y

Download citation

Keywords

  • Smoking susceptibility
  • Smoker image
  • Early adolescence
  • Parent smoking
  • Prototypes