Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) in a Sample of Korean Immigrant Parents in New Zealand
The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) is a widely used 26-item self-report measure based on Baumrind’s conceptualizations of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles. Despite its widespread application in parenting research across the globe, concerns have been expressed regarding the applicability of this measure in Asian immigrant samples. Furthermore, no studies have been conducted with Korean immigrant samples, with separate reporting for mothers and fathers, to provide data on the validity and reliability of the PSDQ. The purpose of current study was to conduct confirmatory factor analysis, based on pre-existing models, to evaluate the reliability of the PSDQ in use in Korean immigrant samples and to refine and revise them if necessary. A sample of 207 Korean immigrant parents of children (ages 6–10) in New Zealand completed the PSDQ. The results suggest that the revised models largely replicate the existing models, and most of the items that make up the authoritarian and authoritative scales were found to be sufficiently coherent and robust to be used.
KeywordsAuthoritarian parenting Authoritative parenting Confirmatory factor analysis Korean immigrant parents Parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ)
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declares no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Arbuckle J.L. (2011). AMOS 20.0 user's guide . Crawfordville, FL: Amos Development Corporation.Google Scholar
- Baurmind, D. (1971). Current patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monographs, 4, 1–103.Google Scholar
- Boomsma, A., & Herzog, W. (2013). Correcting structural equation model fit statistics and indexes under small-sample and/or large-model conditions. Retrieved from: http://www.gmw.rug.nl/~boomsma/swain.pdf
- Boomsma, A., & Hoogland, J. J. (2001). The robustness of LISREL modeling revisited. In R. Cudeck, S. du Toit, & D. Sörbom (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: Present and future: A Festschrift in honor of Karl Jöreskog (pp. 139–168). Chicago: Scientific Software International.Google Scholar
- Byrne, B. M. (2013). Structural equation modeling with Mplus: Basic concepts, applications, and programming. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Chou, C. P., & Bentler, P. M. (1995). Estimates and tests in structural equation modeling. In R. H. Hoyle (Ed.), Structural equation modeling: Concepts, issues, and applications (pp. 37–55). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioural sciences (2nd.). Hillsdale NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Diaz, Y. (2005). Associations between parenting and child behaviour problems among Latino mothers and children (Unpublished master’s thesis). Faculty of the Graduate School of the University of Maryland, College Park, Maryland, USA. Retrieved from http://drum.lib.umd.edu/bitstream/1903/3255/1/umi-umd-3083.pdf.Google Scholar
- Kim, U., & Choi, S. (1994). Individualism, collectivism, and child development: A Korean perspective. In P. Greenfield & R. Cocking (Eds.), Cross-cultural roots of minority child development (pp. 227–258). NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Kim, S. Y., Wong, V. Y. (2002). Assessing Asian and Asian American parenting: A review of the literature. In K.S. Kurasaki, S. Okazaki & S. Sue (Eds.), Asian American mental health: Assessment theories and methods (pp. 185–201). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers, New York.Google Scholar
- Kim, E., Im., S., Nahm, E., & Hong, S. (2013). Korean American parents‘ reconstruction of immigrant parenting in the United States. Journal of Cultural Diversity, 19(4), 124–132.Google Scholar
- Oda, A. (2010). Parenting and child reading, Asian American. In H. Ling & A. W. Austin (Eds.), Asian American history and culture: An encyclopedia, volume 1–2 (pp. 70–73). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Organista, P. B., Marín, G. & Chun, K. M. (2010). Family structure, relations, and socialization. In The psychology of ethnic groups in the United States (pp. 187–216). Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
- Schmidt, C. (2006). Parenting in a new culture the preschool years: Raising Australian born Chinese children effectively. Preston: Northern Migrant Resource Centre.Google Scholar
- Statistics New Zealand (2014). New Zealand in profile 2014. Retrieved from: http://www.stats.govt.nz
- Stowell, J. A. (2003). The influence of Confucian values on interpersonal communication in South Korea, as compared to China and Japan. University of Oklahoma, Tulsa, Intercultural Communication Studies XII-4, 2003. Retrieved from: http://web.uri.edu/iaics/files/06-Jessica-A.-Stowell.pdf
- Wong, Y., & Tsai, J. (2007). Cultural models of shame and guilt. In J. L. Tracy, R. W. Robins, & J. P. Tangney (Eds.), The self-conscious emotions: Theory and research (pp. 209–223). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar