Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) in a Sample of Korean Immigrant Parents in New Zealand

  • Boram Lee
  • Gavin T. L. Brown


The Parenting Styles and Dimensions Questionnaire (PSDQ) is a widely used 26-item self-report measure based on Baumrind’s conceptualizations of authoritarian and authoritative parenting styles. Despite its widespread application in parenting research across the globe, concerns have been expressed regarding the applicability of this measure in Asian immigrant samples. Furthermore, no studies have been conducted with Korean immigrant samples, with separate reporting for mothers and fathers, to provide data on the validity and reliability of the PSDQ. The purpose of current study was to conduct confirmatory factor analysis, based on pre-existing models, to evaluate the reliability of the PSDQ in use in Korean immigrant samples and to refine and revise them if necessary. A sample of 207 Korean immigrant parents of children (ages 6–10) in New Zealand completed the PSDQ. The results suggest that the revised models largely replicate the existing models, and most of the items that make up the authoritarian and authoritative scales were found to be sufficiently coherent and robust to be used.


Authoritarian parenting Authoritative parenting Confirmatory factor analysis Korean immigrant parents Parenting styles and dimensions questionnaire (PSDQ) 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The author declares no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Early Childhood EducationWoosong UniversityDeajeonSouth Korea
  2. 2.The University of AucklandAucklandNew Zealand

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