Modeling of variables related to problematic internet usage and problematic social media usage in adolescents

  • Hatice Yıldız Durak


Depending on technological developments, the use of Internet and social media has become an important component of everyday life. This component showed perhaps its greatest effect on adolescents and their communication patterns. When the characteristics of adolescents’ developmental period and their developmental tasks are taken into account, it is noteworthy that they constitute a significant risk group in terms of problematic Internet use and problematic social media usage. In this framework, it is primarily necessary to examine adolescents’ problematic social media usage, since as said; they are seen as a risk group in terms of Internet usage. Secondly, problematic Internet usage behaviors need to be analyzed and their correlations with various variables need to be revealed. The objective of the present study is to examine the relationship between adolescents’ “problematic social media usage” and “duration of social media usage, social anxiety, self-regulation, academic procrastination, problematic Internet usage”. The study group consists of 451 adolescents, who are 8th grade middle school and 9th, 10th and 11th grade high school students. Relational screening model was used in this study. Data were analyzed using structural equation modeling. Research results showed that there was a significant relationship between “problematic social media usage” and “social anxiety, self-regulation and academic procrastination”. However, neither the duration of social media usage nor the problematic use of the Internet showed a significant relationship with problematic social media usage. Research results were discussed within the context of “the effect of problematic social media usage on individuals themselves and their learning environments”. Suggestions were made accordingly.


Problematic social media usage Social media usage; social anxiety Self-regulation Problematic internet use Academic procrastination 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

All procedures performed in this study involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

In addition, informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in this study.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Akdemir, N. T. (2013). To investigate the relationship between the attitudes of secondary school students towards Facebook and tendencies towards academic procrastination and academic achievement. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Marmara University, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  2. Akın, A., Arslan, S., Arslan, N., Uysal, R., & Sahranç, Ü. (2015). Self-control management and internet addiction. International Online Journal of Educational Sciences, 7(3), 95–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Alkis, Y., Kadirhan, Z., & Sat, M. (2017). Development and validation of social anxiety scale for social media users. Computers in Human Behavior, 72, 296–303.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alwagait, E., Shahzad, B., & Alim, S. (2015). Impact of social media usage on students academic performance in Saudi Arabia. Computers in Human Behavior, 51, 1092–1097.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Anderson, K. J. (2010). Internet use among college students: An exploratory study. Journal of American College Health, 50(1), 21–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Andreassen, C. S., Torsheim, T., Brunborg, G. S., & Pallesen, S. (2012). Development of a Facebook addiction scale. Psychological Reports, 110(2), 501–517.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Andreassen, C. S., Pallesen, S., & Griffiths, M. D. (2017). The relationship between addictive use of social media, narcissism, and self-esteem: Findings from a large national survey. Addictive Behaviors, 64, 287–293.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Ateş, N. (2016). Examining internet addiction levels of pre-service computer education and instructional technologies teachers in terms of certain variables. Karadeniz Teknik University, Trabzon: Unpublished Master’s Thesis.Google Scholar
  9. Ayas, T., & Horzum, M. (2013). Relation between depression, loneliness, self-esteem and internet addiction. Education, 133(3), 283–290.Google Scholar
  10. Aydın, A., & Tekinsav-Sütçü, S. (2007). Ergenler için sosyal kaygı ölçeğinin (ESKÖ) geçerlik ve güvenirliğinin incelenmesi [Validity and reliability of social anxiety scale for adolescents (SAS-A)]. Turkish Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 14(2), 79–89.Google Scholar
  11. Bayhan, V. (2011). Internet usage habit and internet dependency in high school students (Malatya application) academic information conference, (2–4 February 2011). Malatya: İnönü University.Google Scholar
  12. Berryman, C., Ferguson, C. J., & Negy, C. (2017). Social media use and mental health among young adults. Psychiatric Quarterly, 1–8.Google Scholar
  13. Bozoglan, B., Demirer, V., & Sahin, I. (2013). Loneliness, self-esteem, and life satisfaction as predictors of internet addiction: A cross-sectional study among Turkish university students. Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 54(4), 313–319.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Büyüköztürk, Ş. (2009). Data analysis handbook for social sciences. Ankara: PegemA Publication.Google Scholar
  15. Çakıcı, D. Ç. (2003). An examination of the general procrastination behavior and academic procrastination behavior in high-school and university students. Unpublished Master Thesis, Ankara University, Ankara.Google Scholar
  16. Cao, F., & Su, L. (2007). Internet addiction among Chinese adolescents: Prevalence and psychological features. Child: Care, Health and Development, 33(3), 275–281.Google Scholar
  17. Caplan, S. E. (2002). Problematic internet use and psychosocial well-being: Development of a theory-based cognitive-behavioral measurement instrument. Computers in Human Behavior, 18(5), 553–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Caplan, S. E. (2006). Relations among loneliness, social anxiety, and problematic internet use. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 10(2), 234–242.Google Scholar
  19. Çetin, F. H., Pamuk, M., & Donmuş, V. (2015). Ergenlerde problemli cep telefonu kullanımı ile akademik erteleme arasındaki ilişkide internet bağımlılığının aracılık rolünün incelenmesi. [Investigation of mediating role of internet dependency between problematic mobile phone use and academic suspension in adolescents ]. Turkish Journal of Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 22(1), 60–61.Google Scholar
  20. Ceyhan, A. A. (2008). Predictors of problematic internet use on Turkish university students. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 11(3), 363–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ceyhan, A. A., & Ceyhan, E. (2008). Loneliness, depression, and computer self-efficacy as predictors of problematic internet use. Cyber Psychology & Behavior, 11(6), 699–701.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Ceyhan, E., Ceyhan A. A. & Gürcan, A. (2007). The validity and reliability of the problematic internet usage scale. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 7(1), 387–416.Google Scholar
  23. Chiu, C. M., Cheng, H. L., Huang, H. Y., & Chen, C. F. (2013). Exploring individuals’ subjective well-being and loyalty towards social network sites from the perspective of network externalities: The Facebook case. International Journal of Information Management, 33(3), 539–552.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Chou, C., & Hsiao, M. C. (2000). Internet addiction, usage, gratification, and pleasure experience: The Taiwan college students’ case. Computers & Education, 35(1), 65–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Çınar, M. (2015). Determination of the relationship between the adolescent's problematic internet usage behaviour and their life staticsfaction. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Istanbul Aydın University, İstanbul.Google Scholar
  26. Davila, J., Hershenberg, R., Feinstein, B. A., Gorman, K., Bhatia, V., & Starr, L. R. (2012). Frequency and quality of social networking among young adults: Associations with depressive symptoms, rumination, and corumination. Psychology of popular media culture, 1(2), 72–86.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. De Wit, L., van Straten, A., Lamers, F., Cuijpers, P., & Penninx, B. (2011). Are sedentary television watching and computer use behaviors associated with anxiety and depressive disorders? Psychiatry Research, 186(2), 239–243.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Demir, Y., & Kutlu, M. (2016). The relationship between loneliness and depression: Mediation role of internet addiction. Educational Process: International Journal, 5(2), 97–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. van Deursen, A. J., Bolle, C. L., Hegner, S. M., & Kommers, P. A. (2015). Modeling habitual and addictive smartphone behavior: The role of smartphone usage types, emotional intelligence, social stress, self-regulation, age, and gender. Computers in Human Behavior, 45, 411–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Doğan, A. (2013). The prevalence of internet addiction. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Dokuz Eylül University, Izmir.Google Scholar
  31. Doğan, U. (2016). Effects of social network use on happiness, psychological well-being, and life satisfaction of high school students: Case of facebook and twitter. Education and Science, 41(183), 217–231.Google Scholar
  32. Durak, H., & Seferoğlu, S. S. (2016). Investigation of social media literacy and social media usage patterns in Turkey. The Journal of International Social Research, 9(46), 526–535.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Eldeliklioğlu, J., & Vural-Batık, M. (2013). Predictive effeects of academic achievement, internet use duration, loneliness and shyness on internet addiction. Hacettepe University Journal of Education, 28(1), 141–152.Google Scholar
  34. Ergenç, A. (2011). Web 2.0 and virtual socialization: Example of facebook. Unpublished Master’s Thesis. İstanbul: Maltepe University.Google Scholar
  35. Esen, E. (2010). Examining psycho-social variables that predict internet addiction among adolescents. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Dokuz Eylül University, İzmir. Google Scholar
  36. Fortson, B. L., Scotti, J. R., Chen, Y. C., Malone, J., & Del Ben, K. S. (2007). Internet use, abuse, and dependence among students at a southeastern regional university. Journal of American College Health, 56(2), 137–144.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Gámez-Guadix, M., Calvete, E., Orue, I., & Las Hayas, C. (2015). Problematic internet use and problematic alcohol use from the cognitive–behavioral model: A longitudinal study among adolescents. Addictive Behaviors, 40, 109–114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Gökçearslan, Ş., & Günbatar, S. M. (2012). Internet addiction in high school students. Journal of Educational Technology Theory and Practice, 2(2), 10–24.Google Scholar
  39. Gonzales, A. L., & Hancock, J. T. (2011). Mirror, mirror on my Facebook wall: Effects of exposure to Facebook on self-esteem. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(1–2), 79–83.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Grieve, R., Indian, M., Witteveen, K., Tolan, G. A., & Marrington, J. (2013). Face-to-face or Facebook: Can social connectedness be derived online? Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 604–609.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Griffiths, M. D. (2013). Social networking addiction: Emerging themes and issues. Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy, 4(5). Retrived from on 21.06.2017.
  42. Griffiths, M. D., & Szabo, A. (2013). Is excessive online usage a function of medium or activity? An empirical pilot study. Journal of behavioral addictions, 3(1), 74–77.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Griffiths, M. D., Kuss, D. J., & Demetrovics, Z. (2014). Social networking addiction: an overview of preliminary findings. In: Rosenberg KP, Feder LC (Eds.). Behavioral addictions: criteria, evidence, and treatment, (Chapter 6, pp. 119-141). London: Academic.Google Scholar
  44. Gross, E. F. (2004). Adolescent internet use: What we expect, what teens report. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 25(6), 633–649.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Groth, G. G., Longo, L. M., & Martin, J. L. (2017). Social media and college student risk behaviors: A mini-review. Addictive Behaviors, 65, 87–91.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Günlü, A., & Ceyhan, A. A. (2017). Investigating adolescents’ behaviors on the internet and problematic internet usage. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 4, 75–117. Scholar
  47. Gürtler, D., Kastirke, N., Westram, A., Kreuzer, A., Rumpf, H. J., John, U., & Meyer, C. (2011). Messung Problematischer Internetnutzung: Vergleich der Compulsive Internet Use Scale (CIUS) und des Internet Addiction Test (IAT). Suchttherapie, 12(S 01).Google Scholar
  48. Gürültü, E. (2016). Investigation of the relation between high school students’ social media addiction and academic procrastination behavior. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Marmara University, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  49. Hall, A. S., & Parsons, J. (2001). Internet addiction: College student case study using best practices in cognitive behavior therapy. Journal of Mental Health Counseling, 23(4), 312–327.Google Scholar
  50. Harma, M. (2008). The impact of parental control and marıtal conflict on adolescents’ self-regulatıon and adjustment. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Middle East Technical University, Ankara.Google Scholar
  51. Heo, J., Chun, S., Lee, S., Lee, K. H., & Kim, J. (2015). Internet use and well-being in older adults. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 18(5), 268–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Huang, C. (2010). Internet use and psychological well-being: A meta-analysis. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 13(3), 241–249.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Inan, A. (2010). The internet addiction of the students in the primary and secondary education. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Ataturk University, Erzurum.Google Scholar
  54. Internet Board of the Ministry of Transport (2011). Çocukların sosyal paylaşım sitelerini kullanma alışkanlıkları raporu [Report on the habits of children using social networking sites]. Retrieved from
  55. Jang, K. S., Hwang, S. Y., & Choi, J. Y. (2008). Internet addiction and psychiatric symptoms among Korean adolescents. Journal of School Health, 78(3), 165–171.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Johansson, A., & Götestam, K. G. (2004). Internet addiction: Characteristics of a questionnaire and prevalence in Norwegian youth (12–18 years). Scandinavian Journal of Psychology, 45(3), 223–229.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Kalpidou, M., Costin, D., & Morris, J. (2011). The relationship between Facebook and the well-being of undergraduate college students. CyberPsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 14(4), 183–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Karasar, N. (2005). Bilimsel araştırma yöntemi [scientific research method]. Ankara: Nobel Publication.Google Scholar
  59. Kashdan, T. B. (2007). Social anxiety spectrum and diminished positive experiences: Theoretical synthesis and meta-analysis. Clinical Psychology Review, 27(3), 348–365.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kim, H. K., & Davis, K. E. (2009). Toward a comprehensive theory of problematic internet use: Evaluating the role of self-esteem, anxiety, flow, and the self-rated importance of internet activities. Computers in Human Behavior, 25(2), 490–500.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Kim, J., & Lee, J. E. R. (2011). The Facebook paths to happiness: Effects of the number of Facebook friends and self-presentation on subjective well-being. CyberPsychology, behavior, and social networking, 14(6), 359–364.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Kim, K., Ryu, E., Chon, M. Y., Yeun, E. J., Choi, S. Y., Seo, J. S., & Nam, B. W. (2006). Internet addiction in Korean adolescents and its relation to depression and suicidal ideation: A questionnaire survey. International Journal of Nursing Studies, 43(2), 185–192.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Kittinger, R., Correia, C. J., & Irons, J. G. (2012). Relationship between Facebook use and problematic internet use among college students. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(6), 324–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Kraut, R., Patterson, M., Lundmark, V., Kiesler, S., Mukophadhyay, T., & Scherlis, W. (1998). Internet paradox: A social technology that reduces social involvement and psychological well-being? American Psychologist, 53(9), 1017–1031.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Kuss, D. J., & Griffiths, M. D. (2012). Internet gaming addiction: A systematic review of empirical research. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 10(2), 278–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Kuss, D. J., Griffiths, M. D., & Binder, J. F. (2013a). Internet addiction in students: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 959–966.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Kuss, D. J., Van Rooij, A. J., Shorter, G. W., Griffiths, M. D., & van de Mheen, D. (2013b). Internet addiction in adolescents: Prevalence and risk factors. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(5), 1987–1996.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. La Greca, A. M., Dandes, S. K., Wick, P., Shaw, K., & Stone, W. L. (1988). Development of the social anxiety scale for children: Reliability and concurrent validity. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 17, 84–91.Google Scholar
  69. Lee, L., Chen, D. T., Li, J. Y., & Lin, T. B. (2015). Understanding new media literacy: The development of a measuring instrument. Computers & Education, 85, 84–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Leitenberg, H. (2013). Handbook of social and evaluation anxiety. In Springer Science & Business Media.Google Scholar
  71. Leung, L., & Lee, P. S. (2012). Impact of internet literacy, internet addiction symptoms, and internet activities on academic performance. Social Science Computer Review, 30(4), 403–418.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Liu, C. Y., & Kuo, F. Y. (2007). A study of internet addiction through the lens of the interpersonal theory. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 10(6), 799–804.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Mathers, M., Canterford, L., Olds, T., Hesketh, K., Ridley, K., & Wake, M. (2009). Electronic media use and adolescent health and well-being: Cross-sectional community study. Academic Pediatrics, 9(5), 307–314.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Mei, S., Yau, Y. H., Chai, J., Guo, J., & Potenza, M. N. (2016). Problematic internet use, well-being, self-esteem and self-control: Data from a high-school survey in China. Addictive Behaviors, 61, 74–79.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Milani, L., Osualdella, D., & Di Blasio, P. (2009). Quality of interpersonal relationships and problematic internet use in adolescence. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 12(6), 681–684.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Milgram, N. N., Mey-Tal, G., & Levison, Y. (1998). Procrastination, generalized or specific, in college students and their parents. Personality and Individual Differences, 25(2), 297–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Moilanen, K. L. (2007) The adolescent self-regulatory inventory: The development and validation of a questionnaire of short-term and long-term self-regulation. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 36 (6), 835–848.Google Scholar
  78. Nalwa, K., & Anand, A. P. (2003). Internet addiction in students: A cause of concern. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 6(6), 653–656.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Odaci, H. (2011). Academic self-efficacy and academic procrastination as predictors of problematic internet use in university students. Computers & Education, 57(1), 1109–1113.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Odacı, H., & Çıkrıkçı, Ö. (2014). Problematic internet use in terms of gender, attachment styles and subjective well-being in university students. Computers in Human Behavior, 32, 61–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Ostovar, S., Allahyar, N., Aminpoor, H., Moafian, F., Nor, M. B. M., & Griffiths, M. D. (2016). Internet addiction and its psychosocial risks (depression, anxiety, stress and loneliness) among Iranian adolescents and young adults: A structural equation model in a cross-sectional study. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 14(3), 257–267.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Özdemir, Y., Kuzucu, Y., & Ak, Ş. (2014). Depression, loneliness and internet addiction: How important is low self-control? Computers in Human Behavior, 34, 284–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Özolgun Kurt, N. (2014). Investigation of the problematic internet use, cognitive ability and attention skills on vocational school students. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Ege University, İzmir.Google Scholar
  84. Paul, J. A., Baker, H. M., & Cochran, J. D. (2012). Effect of online social networking on student academic performance. Computers in Human Behavior, 28(6), 2117–2127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Pempek, T. A., Yermolayeva, Y. A., & Calvert, S. L. (2009). College students' social networking experiences on Facebook. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 30(3), 227–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Pontes, H. M., Griffiths, M. D., & Patrão, I. M. (2014). Internet addiction and loneliness among children and adolescents in the education setting: An empirical pilot study. Aloma: Revista de Psicologia, Ciències de l'Educació i de l'Esport, 32(1), 91–98.Google Scholar
  87. Rae, J. R., & Lonborg, S. D. (2015). Do motivations for using Facebook moderate the association between Facebook use and psychological well-being? Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 771. Scholar
  88. Rothblum, E. D., Solomon, L. J., & Murakami, J. (1986). Affective, cognitive, and behavioral differences between high and low procrastinators. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 33(4), 387–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Ryan, T., Chester, A., Reece, J., & Xenos, S. (2014). The uses and abuses of Facebook: A review of Facebook addiction. Retrived from on 01.07.2017.
  90. Saaid, S. A., Al-Rashid, N. A. A., & Abdullah, Z. (2014). The Impact of Addiction to Twitter among University Students. In The impact of addiction to twitter among university students. In Future information technology (pp. 231-236). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Savcı, M. (2016). Turkish version of the social disorders scale [Sosyal Medya Bozukluğu Ölçeği’nin Türkçe uyarlaması]. Fourth International Instructional Technologies & Teacher Education Symposium, Fırat University, Elazığ.Google Scholar
  92. Savcı, M., & Aysan, F. (2016). The role of attachment styles, peer relations, and affections in predicting internet addiction. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 3, 401–432.Google Scholar
  93. Schermelleh-Engel, K. & Moosbrugger, H. (2003). Evaluating the fit of structural equation models: Tests of significance and descriptive goodness-of-fit measures. Methods of Psychological Research Online, 8(2), 23–74.Google Scholar
  94. Schouwenburg, H. C., Lay, C. H., Pychyl, T. A., & Ferrari, J. R. (2004). Counseling the procrastinator in academic settings. Washington DC: American Psychological Association.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Seferoglu, S. S., & Yıldız, H. (2013). Digital age of the child: A study on the use of Facebook and internet addiction in the students. Communication and Diplomacy, 2, 31–48.Google Scholar
  96. Selfhout, M. H., Branje, S. J., Delsing, M., ter Bogt, T. F., & Meeus, W. H. (2009). Different types of internet use, depression, and social anxiety: The role of perceived friendship quality. Journal of Adolescence, 32(4), 819–833.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. Shapira, N. A., Goldsmith, T. D., Keck, P. E., Khosla, U. M., & McElroy, S. L. (2000). Psychiatric features of individuals with problematic internet use. Journal of Affective Disorders, 57(1), 267–272.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Singh, N., & Barmola, K. C. (2015). Internet addiction, mental health and academic performance of school students/adolescent. Int J Indian Psychol, 2, 98–108.Google Scholar
  99. Statista (2017). Global social network penetration rate as of January 2017, by region. Retrived from on 21.06.2017.
  100. Stavropoulos, V., Alexandraki, K., & Motti-Stefanidi, F. (2013). Recognizing internet addiction: Prevalence and relationship to academic achievement in adolescents enrolled in urban and rural Greek high schools. Journal of Adolescence, 36(3), 565–576.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. Sübaşı, G. (2007). Some variables for social anxiety prediction in college students. Education and Science, 32(144), 3–15.Google Scholar
  102. Subrahmanyam, K., & Lin, G. (2007). Adolescents on the net: Internet use and well-being. Adolescence, 42(168), 659–677.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  103. Tanrıverdi, S. (2012). The examining of the relation between the internet addiction and the perceived social support on the secondary education students. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Yüzüncü Yıl University, Van.Google Scholar
  104. Taylan, H. H., & Isik, M. (2015). Internet addiction among secondary school and high school students in Sakarya. Turkish Studies-International Periodical for the Languages, Literature and History of Turkish or Turkic, 10(6), 855–874.Google Scholar
  105. Tice, D. M., & Baumeister, R. F. (1997). Longitudinal study of procrastination, performance, stress, and health: The costs and benefits of dawdling. Psychological Science, 8(6), 454–458.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Tsai, C. C., & Lin, S. S. (2003). Internet addiction of adolescents in Taiwan: An interview study. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 6(6), 649–652.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Turnalar Kurtaran, G. (2008). Examining the variables predicted internet addiction. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Mersin University, Mersin.Google Scholar
  108. Tutgun-Ünal, A., & Deniz, L. (2015). Development of the social media addiction scale. AJIT-e, 6(21), 51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Uzun, A., E. (2016). Investigation of the association between facebook connect strategies and academic procrastination behavior of adolescents to ongoing different high schools. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Istanbul Aydin University, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  110. Valkenburg, P. M., & Peter, J. (2011). Online communication among adolescents: An integrated model of its attraction, opportunities, and risks. Journal of Adolescent Health, 48(2), 121–127.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. Van den Eijnden, R. J., Meerkerk, G. J., Vermulst, A. A., Spijkerman, R., & Engels, R. C. (2007). Online communication, compulsive internet use, and psychosocial well-being among adolescents: A longitudinal study. Developmental Psychology, 44(3), 655–665.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Van den Eijnden, R. J., Lemmens, J. S., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2016). The social media disorder scale. Computers in Human Behavior, 61, 478–487.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Van Rooij, A. J., Schoenmakers, T. M., Vermulst, A. A., Van Den Eijnden, R. J., & Van De Mheen, D. (2011). Online video game addiction: Identification of addicted adolescent gamers. Addiction, 106(1), 205–212.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Vauras, M., Iiskala, T., Kajamies, A., Kinnunen, R., & Lehtinen, E. (2003). Shared-regulation and motivation of collaborating peers: A case analysis. Psychologia, 46(1), 19–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Waldo, A. D. (2014). Correlates of internet addiction among adolescents. Psychology, 5(18), 1999–2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. Wang, C., Lee, M. K., & Hua, Z. (2015). A theory of social media dependence: Evidence from microblog users. Decision Support Systems, 69, 40–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Willoughby, T. (2008). A short-term longitudinal study of internet and computer game use by adolescent boys and girls: Prevalence, frequency of use, and psychosocial predictors. Developmental Psychology, 44(1), 195–204.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. Yang, C. C., & Brown, B. B. (2013). Motives for using Facebook, patterns of Facebook activities, and late adolescents’ social adjustment to college. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 1–14.Google Scholar
  119. Yang, S. C., & Tung, C. J. (2007). Comparison of internet addicts and non-addicts in Taiwanese high school. Computers in Human Behavior, 23(1), 79–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Yao, M. Z., & Zhong, Z. J. (2014). Loneliness, social contacts and internet addiction: A cross-lagged panel study. Computers in Human Behavior, 30, 164–170.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. Yen, J. Y., Ko, C. H., Yen, C. F., Wu, H. Y., & Yang, M. J. (2007). The comorbid psychiatric symptoms of internet addiction: Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, social phobia, and hostility. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(1), 93–98.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Yen, J. Y., Yen, C. F., Chen, C. S., Wang, P. W., Chang, Y. H., & Ko, C. H. (2012). Social anxiety in online and real-life interaction and their associated factors. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 15(1), 7–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Yıldız-Durak, H. (2018). What would you do without your smartphone? Adolescents’ social media usage, locus of control, and loneliness as a predictor of Nomophobia. Addicta: The Turkish Journal on Addictions, 5(2), 151–163.Google Scholar
  124. Yıldız-Durak, H., & Seferoğlu, S. (2018). Factors associated with smartphone use and addiction among middle school students. Journal of Educational Technology Theory and Practice, 8(1), 1–23. Scholar
  125. Yılmaz, E. (2013). The relationship between internet addiction and problem solving skills of high school students (9th and 10th grade) in terms of several variables. Unpublished Master’s Thesis, Marmara University, Istanbul.Google Scholar
  126. Yılmaz, E., Şahin, Y. L., Haseski, H. I., & Erol, O. (2014). Lise öğrencilerinin internet bağımlılık düzeylerinin çeşitli değişkenlere göre incelenmesi: Balıkesir ili örneği [An analysis of ınternet addiction among high school students with respect to several variables: Balıkesir province sample]. Journal of Educational Sciences Research, 4(1), 133–144.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. Young, K. S., & Case, C. J. (2004). Internet abuse in the workplace: New trends in risk management. Cyberpsychology & Behavior, 7(1), 105–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Zorbaz, O. (2013). Analysis of problematic internet use of high school students in terms of social anxiety and peer relations. Unpublished Masters Thesis, Hacettepe University, Ankara.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Education, Department of Computer Education and Instructional TechnologyBartin UniversityBartinTurkey

Personalised recommendations