Early Intervention ABA for Toddlers with ASD: Effect of Age and Amount
- 7 Downloads
Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is a developmental disability manifested early in life. About 26–40% of young children with ASD have intellectual disability (ID). Applied Behavior Analysis (ABA) has been shown to be effective in reducing symptoms of ASD and improving cognitive and language function. The purpose of this study was to examine the optimal age, number of treatment hours and domains, for which ABA was effective in a community based early intervention program. An ABA program was implemented with 106 toddlers under 40 months, many of whom were from immigrant families with limited English proficiency. Bayley Scales, VBMAPP and CARS-2 were administered as Pre-and Post-intervention program measures. The children showed significant improvement in all Bayley and VBMAPP measures as well as reduction in symptoms of ASD. The current study shows that ABA early intervention in a community setting provides statistically significant improvement in cognitive, communication, motor, socio-emotional, adaptive and criterion referenced behavior as well as a reduction in symptoms of ASD and barriers to learning.
KeywordsEarly intervention ABA Autism spectrum disorder Ethnic minorities Immigrant families
Compliance with Ethical Standards
The relevant University IRB reviewed this study and “it was found to not fall under the description of research that requires IRB approval” and no external funding was received for the research.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- Bayley, N. (1969). Scales of infant development: manual. New York: The psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Bayley, N. (1993). Bayley scales of infant development-II: Manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Bayley, N. (2003). Bayley scales of infant development- III: Manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar
- Chakrabarti, S., & Fombonne, E. (2001). Pervasive developmental disorders in preschool children. Journal of American Medical Association, 285(24), 3093–3099.Google Scholar
- Christensen, D. L., Baio, J., Braun, K. V., Bilder, D., Charles, J., Constantino, J. N., Daniels, J., … Yeargin-Allsopp, M. (2016) Prevalence and characteristics of autism Spectrum disorder among children aged 8 years--autism and developmental disabilities monitoring network, 11 sites, United States. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report Surveillance Summaries, 65 (no. SS-3) 1-23.Google Scholar
- Dixon, M. R., Belisle, J., Stanley, C., Rowsey, K., Daar, J. H., & Szekely, S. (2015). Toward a behavior analysis of complex language for children with autism: Evaluating the relationship between PEAK and the VB-MAPP. Journal of Developmental and Physical Disabilities, 27(2), 223–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Fenske, E. C., Zalenski, S., Krantz, P. J., & McClannahan, L. E. (1985). Age at intervention and treatment outcome for autistic children in a comprehensive intervention program. Analysis and Intervention in Developmental Disabilities, 5(1), 4958.Google Scholar
- Fombonne, E. (2002). Epidemiological trends in rates of autism. Molecular Psychiatry, 7(SUPPL. 2). https://doi.org/10.1038/sj.mp.4001162
- Greenspan, S. I. (2004). Greenspan social-emotional growth chart: A screening questionnaire for infants and young children. San Antonio: Psych Corp.Google Scholar
- Lovaas, O. I., & Smith, T. (1988). Intensive behavioral treatment for young autistic children. In B. B. Lahey & A. E. Kazdin (Eds.), Advances in clinical child psychology (Vol. 2). New York: Plenum Press.Google Scholar
- McGee, G. G., Morrier, M. J., & Daly, T. (2001). The Walden early childhood programs. In J. S. Handleman & S. L. Harris (Eds.), Preschool education programs for children with autism (2nd ed., pp. 157–190). Austin: Pro-Ed.Google Scholar
- New York State Department of Health. (1999). Clinical Practice Guideline: Report of the Recommendations. Autism/Pervasive Developmental Disorders, Assessment and Intervention for Young Children (Age 0–3 Years). Publication No. 4215.Google Scholar
- Reichler, R. J. & Schopler, E. (1971). Journal of Autism & Childhood Schizophrenia, 1, 283–296.Google Scholar
- Schopler, E., Reichler, R. J., & Rochen Renner, B. R. (1986). The childhood autism rating scale for diagnostic screening and classification of autism. New York: Irvington.Google Scholar
- Schopler, E., Bourgondien, M. E., Wellman, G. J., & Love, S. R. (2010). Childhood autism rating scale (Second ed.). Torrance: Western Psychological Services.Google Scholar
- Shonkoff J. & Phillips, D. (Eds) (2000). From neurons to neighborhoods: The science of early childhood. Committee on integrating the science of early childhood development, board on children, youth, and families, commission on behavioral and social sciences and education, National Research Council and Institute of Medicine. Washington, DC, National Academy Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, T., Groen, A. D., & Wynn, J. W. (2000). Randomized trial of intensive early intervention for children with pervasive developmental disorder. American Journal on Mental Retardation, 105(4), 269-285Google Scholar
- Solomon, R., Van Egeren, L. A., Mahoney, G., Huber, M. S. Q., & Zimmerman, P. (2014). PLAY project home consultation intervention program for young children with autism spectrum disorders: A randomized controlled trial. Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics, 35(8), 475.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Sundberg, M. L. (2008). Verbal behavior milestones assessment and placement program: The VB-MAPP. Concord: AVB Press.Google Scholar
- Wechsler, D. (2002). WPPSI-III administration and scoring manual. San Antonio: Psychological Corporation.Google Scholar