Parental social power, co-parenting, and child attachment: early to late japanese adolescence transitions

  • Atsushi ShimotomaiEmail author


The purposes of this study were to examine how adolescents’ perceptions of parental powers and how bases of power between the father and the mother separately impact adolescents’ attachment to their father and mother, as well as the changing pattern of such impact. The participants were 44 junior high school students (M = 14.32 years old), 88 high school students (M = 17.27 years old), and 61 university students (M = 20.54 years old) in Japan. Adolescents’ attachment to their parents and their perceptions of parental social powers were assessed. The results indicated that adolescents had a significantly high perceptions of parental expert power. Moreover, the similarity between parental powers strongly impacted the behavioral bonds of adolescents’ attachment. Furthermore, powers between parents mutually defined and influenced the attachment of late adolescents to their parents. Thus, the present study could point out adolescents’ rebuilding their parent-child relationships and the interdependence of parents in child-rearing. These findings are discussed from the perspectives of co-parenting and the social adjustment of parents and children.


Adolescence Parent–child relationship Attachment Social power Interdependence 



This study has not been funded from anywhere.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

Atsushi Shimotomai declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Institutional research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. Participation in the survey was on the voluntary basis and anonymous.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.


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Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychology, School of Human SciencesSenshu UniversityKawasakiJapan

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