What Does Migration Mean to Us? USA and Russia: Relationship Between Migration, Resilience, Social Support, Happiness, Life Satisfaction, Depression, Anxiety and Stress
- 128 Downloads
In the present study, migrants and non-migrants in the USA and Russia were compared regrading positive and negative variables of mental health. Data of resilience (RS-11), social support (F-SozU), happiness (SHS), life satisfaction (SWLS), depression, anxiety and stress symptoms (DASS-21) were collected in representative samples in Russia (non-migrants: N = 2129; migrants: N = 188) and in the USA (non-migrants: N = 2191; migrants: N = 116). In Russia, no significant differences between migrants and non-migrants were found. In the USA, social support and (marginally) resilience were significantly lower in the migrant sample. Cross-culturally, multiple regression analyses showed that for non-migrants all positive variables were associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. In both migrant samples, the associations were more specifically. While in the US migrant sample, happiness and life satisfaction were of particular importance, in the migrant sample in Russia, happiness and social support played a significant role. Practical applications for enhance of subjective well-being and limitations of gained results are discussed.
KeywordsMigration Mental health Russia USA
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.
The datasets during and/or analysed during the current study available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.
The study was funded by the Alexander von Humboldt Professorship warded to Jürgen Margraf by the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation.
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Ali, J., McDermott, S., & Gravel, R. G. (2004). Recent research on immigrant health from statistics Canada’s population surveys. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 95, 9–13.Google Scholar
- Antony, M. M., Bieling, P. J., Cox, B. J., Enns, M. W., & Swinson, R. P. (1998). Psychometric properties of the 42-item and 21-item versions of the depression anxiety stress scales in clinical groups and a community sample. Psychological Assessment, 10, 176–181. doi: 10.1037/1040-35126.96.36.199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Berry, J. W. (1989). Introduction to methodology. In H. Triandis & J. W. Berry (Eds.), Handbook of cross-cultural psychology (Vol. 2, pp. 1–28). Boston: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- Berry, J. W. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology, 46, 5–34.Google Scholar
- Bhaskar, R., Arenas-Germosén, B., & Dick, C. (2013). Demographic analysis 2010: Sensitivity analysis of the foreign-born migration component. Population Division Working Paper, Nr. 98. https://www.census.gov/population/www/documentation/twps0098/twps0098.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2017.
- Bieda, A., Hirschfeld, G., Schönfeld, P., Brailovskaia, J., Zhang, X. C., & Margraf, J. (2016). Universal happiness? Cross-cultural measurement invariance of scales assessing positive mental health. Psychological Assessment. doi: 10.1037/pas0000353.
- Biegel, D. E. (1985). The application of network theory and research to the field of aging. In W. J. Sauer & R. T. Coward (Eds.), Social support networks and the care of the elderly: Theory, research and practice (pp. 251–274). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
- Corp, S. (2012). IBM SPSS statistics for Macintosh, version 21.0. Armonk: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
- Flynn, M. (2003). Returning home? Approaches to repatriation and migrant resettlement in post-Soviet Russia. In R. Münz & R. Ohliger (Eds.), Diasporas and ethnic migrants: Germany, Israel and post-Soviet successor states in comparative perspective (pp. 173–187). London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
- Fydrich, T., Sommer, G., Tydecks, S., & Brähler, E. (2009). Fragebogen zur sozialen Unterstützung (F-Soz-U): Normierung der Kurzform (K-14). Zeitschrift für Medizinische Psychologie, 18, 43–48.Google Scholar
- Hansson, E., Tuck, A., Lurie, S., & McKenzie, K. (2010). Improving mental health services for immigrant, refugee, ethno-cultural and racialized groups: Issues and options for service improvement. Ottawa: Mental Health Commission of Canada.Google Scholar
- Hosseini, A. (2016). Migration experience, resilience and psychological outcomes: An exploratory study of Iranian immigrants in Australia. Doctoral dissertation. University of Melbourne. http://hdl.handle.net/11343/115192. Accessed 20 May 2017.
- Jensen, E. B., Bhaskar, R., & Scopilliti, M. (2015). Demographic analysis 2010: Estimates of coverage of the foreign-born population in the American community survey. Population Division Working Paper, Nr. 103. https://www.census.gov/content/dam/Census/library/working-papers/2015/demo/POP-twps0103.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2017.
- Larsen, L. (2004). The Foreign-Born Population in the United States: 2003. Current Population Reports (pp. 20–551). Washington, DC: US Census Bureau.Google Scholar
- Leppert, K., Koch, B., Brähler, E., & Strauß, B. (2008). Die Resilienzskala (RS) – Überprüfung der Langform RS-25 und einer Kurzform RS-13. Klinische Diagnostik und Evaluation, 1, 226–243.Google Scholar
- Lin, N., Dean, A., & Ensel, W. (1986). Social support, life events, and depression. Orlando: Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1995). Manual for the depression anxiety stress scales (DASS). Sydney: Psychology Foundation.Google Scholar
- Maercker, A., Zhang, X. C., Gao, Z., Kochetkov, Y., Lu, S., Sang, Z., Yang, S., Schneider, S., & Margraf, J. (2015). Personal value orientations as mediated predictors of mental health: A three-culture study of Chinese, Russian, and German University students. International Journal of Clinical and Health Psychology, 15, 8–17.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Masten, A. S., Cutuli, J. J., Herbers, J. E., & Reed, M. J. (2009). Resilience in development. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), Oxford handbook of positive psychology (pp. 117–131). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Miyasaka, L. S. (2000). Mental health of Japanese Brazilians living in Japan. Journal of Mental Health, 46, 73–78.Google Scholar
- Miyasaka, L. S., Otsuka, K., Tsuji, K., Atallah, A. N., Kunihiro, J., Nakamura, Y., Kato, S., Abe, Y., & Kamada, Y. (2002). Mental health of two communities of Japanese Brazilians: A comparative study in Japan and in Brazil. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, 56, 55–64. doi: 10.1046/j.1440-1819.2002.00929.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Miyasaka, L. S., Canasiro, S., Abe, Y., Otsuka, K., Tsuji, K., Hayashi, T., Andreoli, S. B., Nakagawa, D., Shirakawa, I., Atallah, A. N., & Kato, S. (2007). Migration and mental health: Japanese Brazilians in Japan and in Brazil. Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria, 56, 48–52. doi: 10.1590/S0047-20852007000100011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rybakovsky, L., & Rayzantsev, S. (2005). International migration in the Russian Federation. United nations expert group meeting on international migration and development. http://www.un.org/esa/population/meetings/ittmigdev2005/P11_Rybakovsky&Ryazantsev.pdf. Accessed 11 April 2017.
- Schumacher, J., Leppert, K., Gunzelmann, T., Strauß, B., & Brähler, E. (2005). Die Resilienzskala - Ein Fragebogen zur Erfassung der psychischen Widerstandsfähigkeit als Personmerkmal. Zeitschrift für Klinische Psychiatrie und Psychotherapie, 53, 16–39.Google Scholar
- Seligman, M. E. P. (2002). Authentic happiness: Using the new positive psychology to realize your potential for lasting fulfillment. New York: Free Press.Google Scholar
- Setia, M. S. S., Quesnel-Vallee, A., Abrahamowicz, M., Tousignant, P., & Lynch, J. (2012). Different outcomes for different health measures in immigrants: Evidence from a longitudinal analysis of the National Population Health Survey (1994–2006). Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health, 14, 156–165. doi: 10.1007/s10903-010-9408-7.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Shkolnikova, M., Shalnova, S., Shkolnikov, V. M., Metelskaya, V., Deev, A., Andreev, E., J, Jdanov, D., & Vaupel, J. W. (2009). Biological mechanisms of disease and death in Moscow: Rationale and design of the survey on stress aging and health in Russia (SAHR). BMC Public Health, 9, 293. doi: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-293.
- United Nations (2016). International migration report 2015: Highlights. Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population Division. http://www.un.org/en/development/desa/population/migration/publications/migrationreport/docs/MigrationReport2015_Highlights.pdf . Accessed 11 April 2017.