Current Psychology

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 421–431 | Cite as

What Does Migration Mean to Us? USA and Russia: Relationship Between Migration, Resilience, Social Support, Happiness, Life Satisfaction, Depression, Anxiety and Stress

  • Julia BrailovskaiaEmail author
  • Pia Schönfeld
  • Yakov Kochetkov
  • Jürgen Margraf


In the present study, migrants and non-migrants in the USA and Russia were compared regrading positive and negative variables of mental health. Data of resilience (RS-11), social support (F-SozU), happiness (SHS), life satisfaction (SWLS), depression, anxiety and stress symptoms (DASS-21) were collected in representative samples in Russia (non-migrants: N = 2129; migrants: N = 188) and in the USA (non-migrants: N = 2191; migrants: N = 116). In Russia, no significant differences between migrants and non-migrants were found. In the USA, social support and (marginally) resilience were significantly lower in the migrant sample. Cross-culturally, multiple regression analyses showed that for non-migrants all positive variables were associated with depression, anxiety, and stress symptoms. In both migrant samples, the associations were more specifically. While in the US migrant sample, happiness and life satisfaction were of particular importance, in the migrant sample in Russia, happiness and social support played a significant role. Practical applications for enhance of subjective well-being and limitations of gained results are discussed.


Migration Mental health Russia USA 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

This article does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.

The datasets during and/or analysed during the current study available from the corresponding author on reasonable request.


The study was funded by the Alexander von Humboldt Professorship warded to Jürgen Margraf by the Alexander von Humboldt-Foundation.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Julia Brailovskaia
    • 1
    Email author
  • Pia Schönfeld
    • 1
  • Yakov Kochetkov
    • 2
  • Jürgen Margraf
    • 1
  1. 1.Mental Health Research and Treatment CenterRuhr-Universität BochumBochumGermany
  2. 2.Center for Cognitive TherapyMoscowRussia

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