Using Structural Equation Modeling and Multidimensional Scaling to Assess Female College Students’ Academic Adjustment as a Function of Perceived Parenting Styles

Abstract

One understudied aspect of first-year students' transition to college is their relationship with their parents. This study investigated the relationship between three parenting styles (authoritarian, permissive, and authoritative) and adjustment to college life of Palestinian-Arab young females. The aims of the study were to measure Palestinian-Arab females' perceptions of their parents' parenting styles and the set of connections between these perceptions and adjustment to college constructs. This study used repeated measures analysis, structural equation modeling (SEM) and smallest space analysis (SSA, a variant of multidimensional scaling MDS) statistical methods to compute the complex relationships indicated in previous research between the examined variables. Repeated measures analysis results showed that the participants perceived their parents as more authoritative than permissive or authoritarian. With regard to the authoritative parenting, the path model and the SSA solution indicated different results. Only the SSA has confirmed the postulated connection between authoritative parenting style and academic adjustment, for both parental structures. Both statistical methods showed a positive connection between the authoritarian parenting style and academic maladjustment. Permissive parenting style was not found to be related to positive or negative adjustment to college. Interpretation of these results, their congruence within the context of the theoretical frameworks and practical implications are discussed.

This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4

Notes

  1. 1.

    Also defined as Palestinian citizens of Israel

References

  1. Agliata, A., & Renk, K. (2008). College students’ adjustment: the role of parent-college student expectations and communication reciprocity. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 37, 967–982.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  2. Ahmed, R. A. (2013). The father’s role in the Arab world. In D. W. Shwalb, B. J. Shwalb, & M. E. Lamb (Eds.), Fathers in cultural context (pp. 122–147). New York: Routledge, Taylor& Francis Group.

    Google Scholar 

  3. Ahmed, R. A., Rohner, R. P., Khaleque, A., & Gielen, U. P. (2011). Parental acceptance and rejection: Theory, measures, and research in the Arab world. East Lansing: National Center for Research on Teacher Learning (ERIC Document Reproduction Service No. ED514028).

    Google Scholar 

  4. Alt, D. (2013, August). The effects of parenting styles on academic motivations and adjustment to college life among first-year students. Paper presented at the European Association for Research on Learning and Instruction 15th biennial conference: Responsible Teaching and Sustainable Learning. Munich, Germany.

  5. Alt, D., & Geiger, B. (2012). Goal orientations and tendency to neutralize academic cheating: an ecological perspective. Psychological Studies, 57(4), 404–416.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  6. Amar, R., & Toledano, S. (2001). HUDAP manual. Jerusalem: The Hebrew University of Jerusalem.

    Google Scholar 

  7. Arnett, J. J. (2001). Conceptions of the transition to adulthood: perspectives from adolescence through midlife. Journal of Adult Development, 8, 133–143.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  8. Baker, R. W., & Siryk, B. (1989). Student adaptation to college questionnaire manual. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.

    Google Scholar 

  9. Baldwin, D. R., Mclntyre, A., & Hardaway, E. (2007). Perceived parenting styles on college students’ optimism. College Student Journal, 41, 550–557.

    Google Scholar 

  10. Baumrind, D. (1967). Child care practices anteceding three patterns of preschool behavior. Genetic Psychology Monographs, 75, 43–88.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  11. Baumrind, D. (1971). Present patterns of parental authority. Developmental Psychology Monographs, 4, 1–102.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  12. Bentler, P. M. (2006). EQS 6 structural equations program manual. Encino: Multivariate Software, Inc.

    Google Scholar 

  13. Besharat, M. A., Azizi, K., & Poursharifi, H. (2011). Relationships between parenting style and children’s academic achievement in a sample of Iranian families. Social and Behavioral Science, 15, 1280–1283.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  14. Beyers, W., & Goossens, L. (2002). Concurrent and predictive validity of the student adaptation to college questionnaire in a sample of European freshman students. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 62, 527–538.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  15. Blos, P. (1979). The adolescent passage: Developmental issues. NewYork: International Universities Press.

    Google Scholar 

  16. Borg, I., & Shye, S. (1995). Facet theory: Form and content. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publication.

    Google Scholar 

  17. Brady-Amoon, P., & Fuertes, J. N. (2011). Self-efficacy, self-rated abilities, adjustment, and academic performance. Journal of Counseling and Development, 89(4), 431–438.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  18. Buhl, H. M. (2008). Development of a model describing individuated adult child–parent relationships. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32, 381–389.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  19. Buri, J. R. (1991). Parental authority questionnaire. Journal of Personality Assessment, 57, 110–119.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Cohen, E. H., & Amar, R. (2002). External variables as points in smallest space analysis. A theoretical, mathematical and computer-based contribution. Bulletin de Méthodologie Sociologique, 75, 40–56.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  21. Dattel, L. (2012). Turnaround: more students at colleges, less at universities. The Marker. Retrieved August 22, 2012 from http://www.themarker.com/career/1.1806000 (Hebrew)

  22. De Goede, I., Branje, S., & Meeus, W. (2009). Developmental changes in adolescents’ perceptions of relationships with their parents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38, 75–88.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Dennis, J. M., Phinney, J. S., & Chuateco, L. I. (2005). The role of motivation, parental support, and peer support in the academic success of ethnic minority first-generation college students. Journal of College Student Development, 46, 223–236.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  24. Dor, A., & Cohen-Fridel, S. (2010). Preferred parenting styles: do Jewish and Arab–Israeli emerging adults differ? Journal of Adult Development, 17, 146–155.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  25. Dwairy, M. (2004). Parenting styles and mental health of Palestinian–Arab adolescents in Israel. Transcultural Psychiatry, 41, 233–252.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Dwairy, M., & Menshar, K. E. (2006). Parenting style, individuation, and mental health of Egyptian adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 29, 103–117.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Dwairy, M., Achoui, M., Abouserie, R., Farah, A., Sakhleh, A. A., & Fayad, M. (2006). Parenting styles in Arab societies: a first cross-regional research study. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 37, 230–247.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  28. Dwairy, M., Achoui, M., Filus, A., Casullo, M. M., & Vohra, N. (2010). Parenting, mental health and culture: a fifth cross-cultural research on parenting and psychological adjustment of children. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 19(1), 36–41.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  29. Eccles, J., Buchanan, C., Flanagan, C., Fuligni, A., Midgley, C., & Yee, D. (1991). Control versus autonomy during early adolescence. Journal of Social Issues, 47(4), 53–68.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  30. Estep, H. M., & Olson, J. N. (2011). Parenting style, academic dishonesty, and infidelity in college students. College Student Journal, 45. Retrieved from http://www.questia.com/library/1G1-278276704/parenting-style-academic-dishonesty-and-infidelity

  31. Gall, T. L., Evans, D. R., & Bellerose, S. (2000). Transition to first-year university: patterns of change in adjustment across life domains and time. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19, 544–567.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  32. Geiger, B. (2013). Female Arab students’ experience of acculturation and cultural diversity upon accessing higher education in the Northern Galilee-Israel. International Journal of Higher Education, 2, 91–106.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  33. Ginsburg, G., & Bronstein, P. (1993). Family factors related to children’s intrinsic/extrinsic motivational orientation and academic performance. Child Development, 64, 1461–1471.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Gracia, E., & Herrero, J. (2008). Is it considered violence? The acceptability of physical punishment of children in Europe. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 70, 210–217.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  35. Grogan-Kaylor, A., & Otis, M. (2007). The predictors of parental use of corporal punishment. Family Relations, 56, 80–91.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  36. Guttman, L. (1968). A general non-metric technique for finding the smallest coordinate space for a configuration of points. Psychometrika, 33, 469–506.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  37. Guttman, L. (1982). Facet theory, smallest space analysis, and factor analysis. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 54, 491–493.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  38. Hahs-Vaughn, D. (2004). The impact of parents’ education level on college students: an analysis using the beginning postsecondary students longitudinal study 1990-92/94. Journal of College Student Development, 45(5), 483–500.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  39. Halpenny, A. M., Nixon, E., & Watson, D. (2010). Parents’ perspectives on parenting styles and disciplining children. Dublin: Office of the Minister for Children and Youth Affairs.

    Book  Google Scholar 

  40. Hickman, G. P., & Crossland, G. L. (2004). The predictive nature of humor, authoritative parenting style, and academic achievement on indices of initial adjustment and commitment to college among college freshmen. Journal of College Student Retention, 6, 225–245.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  41. Hunt, D. E. (1975). Person-environment interaction: a challenge found wanting before it was tried. Review of Educational Research, 45, 209–230.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  42. Jackson, L. M., Pratt, M. W., Hunsberger, B., & Pancer, S. M. (2005). Optimism as a mediator of the relation between perceived parental authoritativeness and adjustment among adolescents: finding the sunny side of the street. Social Development, 14, 273–304.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  43. Kerr, M., Stattin, H., & Ozdemir, M. (2012). Perceived parenting style and adolescent adjustment: revisiting directions of effects and the role of parental knowledge. Developmental Psychology, 48, 1540–1553.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Kim, D. H., & Schneider, B. (2005). Social capital in action: alignment of parental support in adolescents’ transition to postsecondary education. Social Forces, 84, 1181–1206.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  45. Kruse, J., & Walper, S. (2008). Types of individuation in relation to parents: predictors and outcomes. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32, 390–400.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  46. Kruskal, J. B. (1964). Nonmetric multidimensional scaling: a numerical method. Psychometrika, 29, 115–129.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  47. Levy, S. (2005). In L. Guttman (Ed.), Encyclopedia of social measurement (Vol. 2, pp. 175–188). Oxford: Elsevier.

    Google Scholar 

  48. Litwin, H., & Zoabi, S. (2003). Modernization and elder abuse in an Arab-Israeli context. Research on Aging, 25, 224–246.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  49. Maccoby, E. E., & Martin, J. A. (1983). Socialization in the context of the family: Parent–child interaction. In P. H. Mussen & E. M. Hetherington (Eds.), Handbook of child psychology: Socialization, personality, and social development (4th ed., Vol. 4, pp. 1–101). NY: Wiley.

    Google Scholar 

  50. Mahmoud, M. A. (1997). Al asaleeb al shae’ea’a liltanshea’ah al ijtimae’eyah fo al reef al Masri [Common socialization methods in the Egyptian countryside]. Cairo: Al Markiz Al Qawmi Lilbohoth Al Ejtimae’eyah Wal Jinae’eyah.

  51. Marsiglia, C. S., Walczyk, J., Buboltz, W., & Griffith-Ross, D. A. (2007). Impact of parenting styles and locus of control on emerging adults’ psychosocial success. Journal of Education and Human Development, 1, 1–12.

    Google Scholar 

  52. Masche, J. G. (2008). Reciprocal influences between developmental transitions and parent–child relationships in young adulthood. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 32, 401–411.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  53. Maslovaty, N., Marshall, A. E., & Alkin, M. C. (2001). Teachers’ perceptions structured through facet theory: smallest space analysis versus factor analysis. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 1(1), 71–84.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  54. Mattanah, J. F., Hancock, G. R., & Brand, B. L. (2004). Parental attachment, separation-individuation, and college student adjustment: a structural equation analysis of mediational effects. Journal of Counseling Psychology, 51, 213–225.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  55. McKinney, C., Donnelly, R., & Renk, K. (2008). Perceived parenting, positive and negative perceptions of parents, and late adolescent emotional adjustment. Child and Adolescent Mental Health, 13, 66–73.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  56. Meteyer, K. B., & Jenkins, M. (2009). Dyadic parenting and children’s externalizing symptoms. Family Relations, 58, 289–302.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  57. Milevsky, A., Schlechter, M., Netter, S., & Keehn, D. (2007). Maternal and paternal parenting styles in adolescents: associations with self-esteem, depression and life-satisfaction. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 16, 39–47.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  58. Moon, M. (2011). The effects of divorce on children: married and divorced parents’ perspectives. Journal of Divorce & Remarriage, 52, 344–349.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  59. Nyarko, K. (2011). The influence of authoritative parenting style on adolescents’ academic achievement. American Journal of Social and Management Sciences, 2(3), 278–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  60. Pennebaker, J. W., Colder, M., & Sharp, L. K. (1990). Accelerating the coping process. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 58, 528–537.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  61. Reimuller, A., Hussong, A., & Ennett, S. T. (2011). The influence of alcohol-specific communication on adolescent alcohol use and alcohol-related consequences. Prevention Science, 12, 389–400.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  62. Roszkowski, M., & Goetz, J. (2010). The relationship between salary and perceived financial comfort among graduates of a developmental education program. Research and Teaching in Developmental Education, 26(1), 10–15.

    Google Scholar 

  63. Schnuck, J., & Handal, P. J. (2011). Adjustment of college freshmen as predicted by both perceived parenting style and the five-factor model of personality. Psychology, 2(4), 275–282.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  64. Sciarra, D. T., & Ambrosino, K. E. (2011). Post-secondary expectations and educational attainment. Professional School Counseling, 14, 231–241.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  65. Sharkin, B. S. (2004). College counseling and student retention: research findings and implications for counseling centers. Journal of College Counseling, 7, 99–108.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  66. Silva, M., Dorso, E., Azhar, A., & Renk, K. (2007). The relationship among parenting styles experienced during childhood, anxiety, motivation, and academic success in college students. Journal of College Student Retention: Research, Theory & Practice, 9(2), 149–167.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  67. Smetana, J. G., Crean, H. F., & Campione-Barr, N. (2005). Adolescents’ and parents’ changing conceptions of parental authority. New Directions for Child and Adolescent Development, 108, 31–46.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  68. Smith, T., & Renk, K. (2007). Predictors of academic-related stress in college students: an examination of coping, social support, parenting, and anxiety. NASPA Journal, 44, 405–431.

    Google Scholar 

  69. Tao, S., Dong, Q., Pratt, M. W., Hunsberger, B., & Pancer, S. (2000). Social support: relations to coping and adjustment during the transition to university in the People’s Republic of China. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15, 123–144.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  70. The Council for Higher Education (2009). Planning and budgeting committee 34/35 report. Retrieved July 20, 2010 from http://www.che.org.il/download/files/contents_1.pdf (Hebrew)

  71. Underwood, M. K., Beron, K. J., & Rosen, L. H. (2009). Continuity and change in social and physical aggression from middle childhood through early adolescence. Aggressive Behavior, 35, 357–375.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  72. Valiyamattam, G. J., & Gopal, D. V. V. (2013). Impact of the level of parental education on adolescent adjustment: a cross-sectional study. Indian Journal of Health and Wellbeing, 4(1), 10–15.

    Google Scholar 

  73. Voronov, M., & Singer, J. A. (2002). The myth of individualism–collectivism: a critical review. The Journal of Social Psychology, 142, 461–480.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  74. Wintre, M. G., & Yaffe, M. (2000). First-year students’ adjustment to university life as a function of relationships with parents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 15, 9–37.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  75. Wintre, M. G., Bowers, C., Gordner, N., & Lange, L. (2006). Re-evaluating the university attrition statistic: a longitudinal follow-up study. Journal of Adolescent Research, 21, 111–132.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  76. Yazedjian, A., Toews, M. L., & Navarro, A. (2009). Exploring parental factors, adjustment, and academic achievement among white and Hispanic college students. Journal of College Student Development, 50, 458–467.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  77. Zimmer-Gembeck, M. J., & Collins, W. A. (2003). Autonomy development during adolescence. In G. R. Adams & M. Berzonsky (Eds.), Blackwell handbook of adolescence (pp. 175–204). Oxford: Blackwell Publishers.

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Dorit Alt.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Alt, D. Using Structural Equation Modeling and Multidimensional Scaling to Assess Female College Students’ Academic Adjustment as a Function of Perceived Parenting Styles. Curr Psychol 35, 549–561 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-015-9320-3

Download citation

Keywords

  • Parenting styles
  • Academic adjustment
  • Emerging adulthood
  • Culture
  • Multidimensional scaling