The aim of the present study was to examine the factor structure and psychometric properties of the 8-item short version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression Scale (CES-D) in a large sample of European older adults. Data from The European Social Survey (ESS Round 6 Edition 1.1) provided the basis for this study (5,774 Males and 7,258 Females). Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses provided support for a single factor structure. The results from multi-group confirmatory factor analyses revealed that the factor structure of the CES-D 8 is invariant across sexes, including invariance of item intercepts, item residuals, and item factor loadings. Moreover, the results provided support for the nomological validity of the scale. These results suggest that the shorter 8-item CES-D scale is a valid and reliable instrument of depression and extends the list of available instruments for screening depression among older adults.
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Karim, J., Weisz, R., Bibi, Z. et al. Validation of the Eight-Item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) Among Older Adults. Curr Psychol 34, 681–692 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12144-014-9281-y
- CES-D 8
- Factorial validity
- Nomological validity