Earlier versions of this paper were presented at the CONCEPT conference, ‘Republicanism and Secularism’, University of Nottingham, 15–16 December 2014, and in the Criminal Justice Ethics research group at Roskilde University. Thanks for comments from Cécile Laborde, Michael Freeden, Ronan McCrea, Geoff Cupit, Mark Wenman, Jesper Ryberg, Thomas Søbirk Petersen, Kasper Lippert-Rasmussen, Rune Klingenberg Hansen, Frej Klem Thomsen and Fatima Sabir.
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The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
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