Our understanding of civilian casualties is not based solely on what is reported but also who reports these human rights abuses. Competing interests at the data collection stage have impeded the development of a more thorough understanding of civilian victimization during conflict. We find that current definitions of “casualty” neglect nonphysical forms of victimization and that group-based definitions of “civilian” can obscure the role of different individuals in conflict. We contend that the dominant definition of “civilian casualty” should be expanded to include the full array of harm inflicted on individuals, including psychological harm and what we refer to as multiple casualties of conflict. Expanding our definition of civilian casualties to include different degrees and kinds of wartime victimization would improve both documentation and analysis. We propose several areas for improvement in terms of the documentation of civilian casualties as well as potential solutions to the problems we identify.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
We focus on civilian casualties of war or armed conflict in this paper for several reasons. First, the identification of military casualties does not face the same degree of conceptual ambiguity as that of civilian casualties. Second, militaries have a long history of documenting their wartime losses for a variety of purposes. Such a history is largely absent with regard to civilian casualties. Throughout the paper, we use the terms war and conflict interchangeably as we do not seek to limit our discussion to a definition of war as exceeding a specific number of annual battle deaths and include episodes of one-sided violence, mass killing, and genocide in our understanding of war.
An exception is work by Ghobarah et al. (2003), which includes infectious diseases amongst civilians as a consequence of civil war. The authors find that “[c]ivil wars continue to kill people indirectly, well after the shooting stops. These new deaths (and disabilities) are overwhelmingly concentrated in the civilian population” (189).
Claire Garbett (2012) details the difficulty of making this distinction within the context of the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) where 34 % of the counts considered by the ICTY do not identify the civilian or military status of the victim.
Hogg (2010) found that Hutu women committed crimes because they perceived Tutsis to be associated with the RPF, and like men, believed the propaganda.
It is unclear in this definition whether civilians are considered to be part of the “opposing” forces and are therefore legitimate targets.
The Briggs Plan during the Malayan Emergency set out to win the insurgency by denying material (food) support to the combatants by forcefully resettling the area’s ethnic Chinese squatter communities (Tilman 1966). The tactics associated with the Briggs Plan have recently been lauded by many counterinsurgency analysts, yet the tactics used in Malaya did not differentiate between combatants and non-combatants. For a critique of the counterinsurgency literature drawing on the lessons of the Malayan Emergency, see Bennett (2009) and Hack (2009).
Vanessa Pupavac (1998) lists multiple claims made by various sides in the Yugoslav conflict that have subsequently been proven false.
An example of RPF violence is the incident of the Kibeho camp closure, where the United Nations estimated that at least 2000 people were killed by RPF army gunfire or trampled in a stampede in the government’s attempt to close what it considered to be a camp for extremist Hutu militia (Susman 1995).
Amnesty International (2011) notes the incommunicado detention of foreign and domestic journalists in Libya as well as several beatings and threats. Seven media workers have died in the conflict, with two deaths attributed to deliberate and targeted attacks. On violence against journalists, see also Anastasijevic (2007).
While this is partly in reaction to the longstanding neglect of women in conflict analysis, noted by H. Patricia Hynes (2004) and others, we contend that the exclusive focus on either gender distorts our understanding of conflict. Campbell (2007) provides a compelling example of the importance of studying male wartime sexual victimization.
In this context, the women’s ethno-nationalist identity is valueless since it is not passed on to her children, and rape does not only accomplish the elimination of the enemy through the loss of the bloodline, but also contributes to the reproduction of the perpetrator’s group (Jones 2000; Schiffman et al. 2002; Snyder et al. 2006; Sofos 1996; Nettlefield 2010).
In the Rwandan context, patrilineage and patriarchy were challenged more, especially if the woman was a Tutsi and therefore of a “higher ethnic rank,” so that a woman’s ethnic identity was considered significant.
Peterman et al. (2011) discuss the particular challenges associated with gathering accurate data on the incidence of rape during periods of conflict and highlight the potential for inaccurate victim testimony. For additional discussion of the debate regarding the use of rape in Libya, see Harding (2011a; 2011b).
For a critique, see Summerfield (1999).
By recording information such as the victim’s name, age, gender, occupation, religion, and ethnic group, and the date, location, and number of people killed in the incident, this project is applying a disaggregated approach to the public documentation of both direct civilian and combatant casualties. For more details, see www.everycasualty.org.
We thank an anonymous reviewer for this suggestion.
For example, surveys of 1,300 child soldiers in Uganda have attempted to document physical injuries and access to relevant social services, including counseling, but have limited investigation of psychological injuries (limited to the question “would you describe [the war-affected youth] as still seriously affected by his experience in the bush? If yes, describe”). See, Annan, Blattman and Horton (2006) and Blattman (2013).
One example is the Ushahidi platform, which collects and maps incidents of political violence submitted by users via SMS, email or web submissions. See, www.ushahidi.com.
We thank an anonymous reviewer for stressing this point.
Amnesty International. 2011. The Battle for Libya: Killings, Disappearances and Torture. London: Amnesty International. http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/info/MDE19/025/2011/en.
Anastasijevic, D (2007) The Price of Speaking Out in Serbia. Time. 17 April 2007. http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1611396,00.html.
Andreas, P. and K. M. Greenhill, eds. 2010. Sex, drugs and body counts: the politics of numbers in global crime and conflict. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Annan, J., C. Blattman and R. Horton (2006) The State of Youth and Youth Protection in Northern Uganda: Findings from the Survey for War Affected Youth. Uganda: UNICEF Uganda. Accessed 18 June 2013. http://chrisblattman.com/documents/policy/sway/SWAY.Phase1.FinalReport.pdf
Annan, J., and M. Brier (2010) The Risk of Return: Intimate Partner Violence in Northern Uganda’s Armed Conflict. Social Science & Medicine 70(1). 152–159.
Ascherio, A., R. Biellik, A. Epstein, G. Snetro, S. Gloyd, B. Ayotte, and P. R. Epstein (1995) Deaths and injuries caused by land mines in Mozambique. The Lancet 346(8977): 721–724.
Askin, K. D. (1999) Sexual violence in decisions and indictments of the Yugoslav and Rwandan Tribunals: Current Status. The American Journal of International Law 93(1): 122.
Baines, E. (2003) Body politics and the Rwandan crisis. Third World Quarterly 24(3): 479–493.
Bass, G. J (2000) Stay the Hand of Vengeance: The Politics of War Crimes Tribunals. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
BBC News. Jenin ‘Massacre Evidence Growing’. BBC News. 18 April 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/middle_east/1937048.stm.
BBC News. NATO Apologises for Air Strike on Afghan Civilians. BBC News. 30 May 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-13592290.
BBC News (2011) Afghan Protest at Civilian Deaths ‘in NATO Airstrike’. BBC News. 7 July 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-south-asia-14063056.
BBC News (2012) Taliban Threat Worries Pakistan Media. BBC News. 17 October 2012. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-19978021.
Bennett, H. (2009) ‘A very salutary effect’: the counter-terror strategy in the Early Malayan emergency, June 1948 to December 1949. Journal of Strategic Studies 32(3): 415–444.
Bergmann, M. S., and M. E. Jucovy, eds. (1982). Generations of the Holocaust. New York: Columbia University Press.
Berinsky, J. (2007) Assuming the costs of war: events, elites, and american public support for military conflict. Journal of Politics 69. 975–999.
Betancourt, T. S., J. Agnew-Blais, S. E. Gilman, D. R. Williams and B. Heidi Ellis (2010) Past horrors, present struggles: the role of stigma in the association between war experiences and psychosocial adjustment among former child soldiers in Sierra Leone. Social Science & Medicine 70(1): 17–26.
Bilukha, O. O., M. Brennan, and B. A. Woodruff (2003) Death and Injury from Landmines and Unexploded Ordnance in Afghanistan.” Journal of the American Medical Association 290(5): 650–653.
Blattman, C. (2013) SWAY Absentee Respondent Questionnaire (6/18/13 Version) and “SWAY Household Questionnaire (Final Version)”. Uganda: Survey of War Affected Youth (SWAY). Accessed 18 June 2013. http://chrisblattman.com/projects/sway/
Bohannon, J. (2011) Counting the dead in Afghanistan. Science 331(6022): 1256–1260.
Bracken, P. J., J. Giller, and D. Summerfield (1995) Psychological responses to war and atrocity: the limitations of current concepts. Social Science & Medicine 40(8): 1073–1082
Brooks, J. (2012) The struggle of girl soldiers returning home. Peace Review 24(3): 292–297.
Campbell, K. (2007) The gender of transitional justice: law, sexual violence and the international criminal tribunal for the former Yugoslavia. International Journal of Transitional Justice 1(3): 411–432.
Chapman, A. R. and P. Ball (2001) The Truth of Truth Commissions: Comparative Lessons from Haiti, South Africa, and Guatemala. Human Rights Quarterly 23(4): 1–43.
Cibelli, K., A. Hoover, and J. Kruger (2009) Descriptive Statistics from Statements to the Liberian Truth and Reconciliation Commission. Palo Alto, CA: Benetech
Clodfelter, M. (1995) Vietnam in military statistics: a history of the Indochina Wars, 1772–1991. Jefferson, NC: McFarland & Co.
Cole, W. M. (2010) No News is Good News: Human Rights Coverage in the American Print Media, 1980–2000. Journal of Human Rights 9. 303–325.
Comissão de Acolhimento Verdade e Reconciliação de Timor-Leste (CAVR) (2005) Chega! The Report of the Commission for Reception, Truth and Reconciliation in Timor-Leste. Dili, Timor-Leste: CAVR
Condra, L., J. H. Felter, R. K. Iyengar and J. N. Shapiro. (2010) The Effect of Civilian Casualties in Afghanistan and Iraq. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 16152. 1–85.
Danieli, Y. (1985) The treatment and prevention of long-term effects and intergenerational transmission of victimization: a lesson from holocaust survivors and their children.” Trauma and its Wake 1: 295–313.
Davenport, C., and P. Ball. (2002) Views to a kill: exploring the implications of source selection in the case of Guatemalan State Terror, 1977–1995. Journal of Conflict Resolution 46(3): 427–450.
Davenport, C., and M. Inman. (2010). The Puzzle of Iraqi Mortality: Surges, Civilian Deaths and Alternative Meanings. Yale Journal of International Affairs (Winter 2010): 57–68.
De Jong, J., ed. (2002) Trauma, war, and violence: public mental health in socio-cultural context. New York, NY: Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.
Downes, A. B. (2008) Targeting Civilians in War. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Eck, K. and L. Hultman. (2007) One-sided violence against civilians in war: insights from new fatality data. Journal of Peace Research 44(2): 233–246.
Elias, R., ed. (2012) Symposium: children in armed conflicts [special section]. Peace Review: A Journal of Social Justice 24(3): 255–339.
Elizur, Y. and N. Yishay-Krien. (2009) Participation in Atrocities among Israeli Soldiers during the First Intifada: a qualitative analysis.” Journal of Peace Research 46. 251–267.
Enloe, C. (2000) Maneuvers: the international politics of militarizing women’s lives. Berkley: University of California Press.
Garbett, C. (2012) The legal representation of the civilian and military casualties of contemporary conflicts: unlawful victimization, its victims and their visibility at the ICTY. The International Journal of Human Rights 16(7): 1059–1077.
Gelpi, C., P. D. Feaver, and J. Reifler. (2009) Paying the human costs of war: American public opinion and casualties in military conflicts. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.
Ghobarah, H. A., P. Huth and B. Russett. (2003). Civil wars kill and maim people—long after the shooting stops. The American Political Science Review 97(2): 189–202.
Glick, R. and A. M. Taylor. (2010) Collateral damage: trade disruption and the economic impact of war. The Review of Economics and Statistics 92(1): 102–127
Greenhill, K. M. (2010) Counting the cost: the politics of numbers in armed conflict. In: P. Andreas and K. M. Greenhill (Eds) Sex, drugs and body counts: the politics of numbers in global crime and conflict. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Hack, K. (2009) The Malayan emergence as counter-insurgency paradigm. Journal of Strategic Studies 32(3): 383–414.
Hafner-Burton, E. and J. Ron. (2012) The Latin Bias: Regions, the Anglo-American Media and Human Rights, 1981–2000. International Studies Quarterly.
Hagan, J. and W. Rymond-Richmond. (2010) The ambiguous genocide: The US State Department and the Death Toll in Darfur. In: P. Andreas and K. M. Greenhill (Eds) Sex, drugs and body counts: The politics of numbers in global crime and conflict. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Handrahan, L. (2004) Conflict, gender, ethnicity and post-conflict reconstruction. Security Dialogue 35. 429–445.
Harding, A. (2011) Libya rape claims: seeking the truth. BBC News. 10 June 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13725149.
Harding, A. (2011) Libya: ‘forced to rape in Misrata.’ BBC News. 23 May 2011. http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-africa-13502715.
Harooni, M. (2011) Afghan President sends would-be child suicide bombers home. Thomson Reuters. 30 August 2011.
Hintjens, H. (2001) When identity becomes a knife: reflecting on the genocide in Rwanda. Ethnicities 1(1): 25–55
Hirschman, C., S. Preston, and V. M. Loi. (1995) Vietnamese casualties during the American War: a new estimate. Population and Development Review 21(4): 783–812.
Hogg, N. (2010) Women's participation in the Rwandan genocide: mothers or monsters? International Review of the Red Cross 92(877): 69–102.
Hunt, S. (2004) This was not our war: Bosnian women reclaiming the peace. Durham: Duke University Press.
Hynes, H. P. (2004) On the battlefield of women's bodies: an overview of the harm of war to women. Women's Studies International Forum 27(5–6): 431–445.
International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. 2001. The responsibility to protect: report of the International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. Ottawa: International Development Resource Center.
International Committee of the Red Cross. 1949. Geneva Convention Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War (Fourth Geneva Convention). 12 August 1949. 75 UNTS 287. http://www.unhcr.org/refworld/docid/3ae6b36d2.html.
Jensen, P. S. and J. Shaw. (1993) Children as victims of war: current knowledge and future research needs. Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 32(4): 697–708.
Johnson, H. and A. Thompson. (2008) The development and maintenance of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in civilian adult survivors of war trauma and torture: a review. Clinical Psychology Review 28(1): 36–47.
Jones, A. (2000) Gendercide and genocide. Journal of Genocide Research 2(2): 185–211.
Jones, Ed. and S. Wessely. (2007) A paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychological trauma in the 20th century. Journal of Anxiety Disorders 21(2): 164–175.
Kahl, C. H. (2007) The crossfire or the crosshairs? Norms, civilian casualties, and US conduct in Iraq. International Security 32(1): 7–46.
Kalyvas, S. (2006) The logic of violence in Civil War. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Kellerman, N. (2001) Psychopathology in children of holocaust survivors: a review of the research literature. Israel Journal of Psychiatry and Related Sciences 38(1): 36–46.
Korn, A. (2004) Reporting Palestinian casualties in the Israeli Press: the case of Haaretz and the Intifada. Journalism Studies 5(2): 247–262.
Kreidie, L. H. and K. R. Monroe. (2002) Psychological boundaries and ethnic conflict: how identity constrained choice and worked to turn ordinary people into perpetrators of ethnic violence during the Lebanese Civil War. International Journal of Politics, Culture, and Society 16(1): 5–36.
Lacina, B. and N. P. Gleditsch. (2005) Monitoring trends in global combat: a new dataset of battle deaths. European Journal of Population 21(2–3): 145–166.
Leiby, M. L. (2009) Wartime sexual violence in Guatemala and Peru. International Studies Quarterly 53(2): 445–468.
Lindsey, R. (2002) From atrocity to data: the historiographies of rape in former Yugoslavia and the gendering of genocide. Patterns of Prejudice 36(4): 59–78.
Lyall, J. (2009) Does indiscriminate violence incite insurgent attacks? Evidence from Chechnya.” Journal of Conflict Resolution 53(3): 331–362.
Maedl, A. (2011) Rape as weapon of war in the Eastern DRC?: the victims’ perspective. Human Rights Quarterly 33(1): 128–147.
Mallinder, L. (2008) Amnesty, human rights and political transitions: bridging the peace and justice divide. Oxford: Hart Publishing.
McDermott, J. (2002) Colombia’s female fighting force. BBC News. 4 January 2002. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/americas/1742217.stm.
Morina, N. and J. D. Ford. (2008) Complex sequelae of psychological trauma among Kosovar Civilian War victims. International Journal of Social Psychiatry 54(5): 425–436.
Mueller, J. 1973. War, presidents and public opinion. New York: Wiley.
Mueller, J. (1995) The perfect enemy: assessing the Gulf War. Security Studies 5(1): 79–117.
Murthy, R.S. (2007) Mass violence and mental health: recent epidemiological findings. International Review of Psychiatry 19(3): 183–192.
National Archives (2009) Records of US Military Casualties, Missing in Action, and Prisoners of War from the Era of the Vietnam War. In: Electronic and Special Media Records Services Division (NWME). College Park, MD: National Archives. http://www.archives.gov/research/military/vietnam-war/electronic-records.html.
Nettlefield, L. J. (2010) Research and repercussions of death tolls: the case of the Bosnian Book of the Dead. In: P. Andreas and K. M. Greenhill (Eds) Sex, Drugs and Body Counts: The Politics of Numbers in Global Crime and Conflict. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Olsen, T. D., L. A. Payne and A. G. Reiter. (2010) Transitional Justice in the World, 1970–2007: insights from a New Dataset. Journal of Peace Research 47(6): 803–809.
Peskin, V. (2008). International Justice in Rwanda and the Balkans: virtual trials and the struggle for state cooperation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Peterman, A., D. K. Cohen, T. Palermo, and A. Hoover Green (2011) Rape Reporting During War: Why the Numbers Don’t Mean What You Think They Do. In: Foreign Affairs 1 (August 2011): http://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/68008/amber-peterman-dara-kay-cohen-tia-palermo-and-amelia-hoover-gree/rape-reporting-during-war?page=show.
Priebe, S., M. Bogic, D. Ajdukovic, T. Franciskovic, G. M. Galeazzi, A. Kucukalic, D. Lecic-Tosevski, N. Morina, M. Popovski, D. Wang and M. Schützwohl. (2010) Mental disorders following war in the Balkans: a study in 5 countries. Archives of General Psychiatry 67(5): 518–528.
Pupavac, V. (1998) Disputes over War Casualties in Former Yugoslavia. Radstats Journal 69. http://www.radstats.org.uk/no069/article3.htm.
Ramos, H., J. Ron, and Oskar N., T. Thoms. (2007) Shaping the Northern Media’s Human Rights Coverage, 1986–2000. Journal of Peace Research 44(4): 385–406
Randeree, B. (2011) Tweeting Revolutions. Al Jazeera Blogs. 6 March 2011. http://blogs.aljazeera.net/middle-east/2011/03/06/tweeting-revolutions.
Rayment, S. (2008) Child Suicide Bomber Threat to British Troops. The Telegraph. 13 December 2008. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/onthefrontline/3741841/Child-suicide-bomber-threat-to-British-troops.html.
Renner, M. (1997) Small arms, big impact: the next challenge of disarmament. Worldwatch Paper 137. http://www.worldwatch.org/system/files/.
Restrepo, J. A., M. Spagat, and Juan F. Vargas. (2006) The Severity of the Colombian Conflict: Cross-Country Datasets versus New Micro-Data. Journal of Peace Research 43(1): 99–115.
Rogers, S. (2010) Afghanistan Civilian Casualties: Year by Year, Month by Month.” The Guardian. 10 August 2010. http://www.guardian.co.uk/news/datablog/2010/aug/10/afghanistan-civilian-casualties-statistics.
Sagi-Schwartz, A. (2008) The well being of children living in chronic war zones: The Palestinian-Israeli case. International Journal of Behavioral Development 32(4): 322–336.
Sagi-Schwartz, A., M. H. van Ijzendoorn, and M. J. Bakermans-Kranenburg. (2008) Does intergenerational transmission of trauma skip a generation? No meta-analytic evidence for tertiary traumatization with third generation of Holocaust survivors. Attachment & Human Development 10(2): 105–121.
Schiffman, J., M. Skrabalo, and J. Subotic. (2002) Reproductive Rights and the State in Serbia and Croatia. Social Sciences & Medicine 54(4): 625–642.
Schrodt, P. (2009) Political Instability Task Force Worldwide Atrocities Dataset, 2009. http://web.ku.edu/∼keds/data.dir/atrocities.html.
Schwab, G. (2004) Haunting legacies: trauma in children of perpetrators. Postcolonial Studies 7(2): 177–195.
Seybolt, T. B., J. D. Aronson and B. Fischoff, eds. (2013) Counting the Dead: An Introduction to Civilian Casualty Recording. New York: Oxford University Press.
Singer, M. I., T. M. Anglin, L. Y. Song, and L. Lunghofer. (1995) Adolescents’ exposure to violence and associated symptoms of psychological trauma. Journal of the American Medical Association 273(6): 477–482
Snyder, C., W. Gabbard, D.May, and N. Zulcic. (2006) On the battle ground of women’s bodies: mass rape in Bosnia-Herzegovina. Affilia: Journal of Women and Social Work 21(2): 184–195.
Sofos, S. (1996) Inter-ethnic Violence and Gendered Constructions of Ethnicity in Former Yugoslavia. Social Identities 2(1): 73–92.
Solkoff, N. (1992) Children of survivors of the Nazi Holocaust: a critical review of the literature. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry 62(3): 342–358.
Steflja, I. (2011) (In)humanity on trial: the meaning of international criminal tribunals. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of Toronto.
Straus, S. (2004) How Many Perpetrators Were There in the Rwandan Genocide? An Estimate. Journal of Genocide Research 6(1): 85–98.
Straus, S. (2006) The order of genocide: race, power and war in Rwanda. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.
Summerfield, Derek. 1999. “A Critique of Seven Assumptions behind Psychological Trauma Programmes in War-affected Areas.” Social Science & Medicine 48(10): 1449–1462.
Susman, T. (1995) Bodies Being Dug Up at Rwanda Refugee Camp/Regime Calls Death Toll Exaggerated. Associated Press. 28 April 1995. http://articles.sfgate.com/1995-04-28/news/17802938_1_kibeho-camp-rwandan-soldiers-rwanda-s-tutsi.
Tabeau, E., and J. Bijak. (2005) War-related Deaths in the 1992–1995 Armed Conflicts in Bosnia and Herzegovina: A Critique of Previous Estimates and Recent Results. European Journal of Population 21. 187–215.
Taylor, C. (1999) Sacrifice as Terror: the Rwandan Genocide of 1994. New York: Berg.
Thomson, S. M. (2009) Resisting Reconciliation: State Power and Everyday Life in Post-Genocide Rwanda. Ph.D. dissertation, Dalhousie University.
Tilman, R. O. (1966) The Non-Lessons of the Malayan Emergency. Asian Survey 6(8): 407–419.
Trisko, J. N. (2005) Coping with the Islamist threat: analysing repression in Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan. Central Asian Survey 24(4): 373–389.
United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF). (1997) Cape Town Principles and Best Practices on the Recruitment of Children into the Armed Forces and on Demobilisation and Social Reintegration of Child Soldiers in Africa. Cape Town: UNICEF.
United Nations. (1959) Declaration of the Rights of the Child. New York: United Nations General Assembly.
United States Institute of Peace (USIP). (2011) Truth Commission Digital Collection. Washington: USIP. http://www.usip.org/publications/truth-comission-digital-collection.
van der Veer, G. (1998) Counselling and Therapy with Refugees and Victims of Trauma: Psychological Problems of Victims of War, Torture and Repression. 2nd ed. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
van Ijzendoorn, M. H., M. J. Bakermanns-Kranenburg, and A. Sagi-Schwartz. (2003) Are children of Holocaust survivors less well-adapted? A meta-analytic investigation of secondary traumatization. Journal of Traumatic Stress 16(5): 459–469.
Varshney, A, Tadjoeddin, Z. and R. Panggabean. (2008) Creating Datasets in Information-Poor Environments: Patterns of Collective Violence in Indonesia (1990–2003). Journal of East Asian Studies 8(3): 361–394
Weitsman, P. A. (2008) The politics of identity and sexual violence: a review of Bosnia and Rwanda. Human Rights Quarterly 30(3): 561–578.
Whitman, S. (2005) The plight of women and girls in post-genocide Rwanda International Insights (2005): 93–111.
Wikileaks. Afghan War Diary, 2004–2010. 25 July 2010. http://wikileaks.org/wiki/Afghan_War_Diary,_2004-2010.
WikiLeaks. Collateral Murder. 4 April 2010. http://www.collateralmurder.com.
Wood, E. J. (2003) Insurgent Collective Action and Civil War in El Salvador. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Wood, E. J. (2009) Armed groups and sexual violence: when is wartime rape rare? Politics & Society 37(1): 131–161.
Žarkov, D. (2007) The body of war: media, ethnicity and gender in the break-up of Yugoslavia. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Zorbas, E. 2004. Reconciliation in post-genocide Rwanda. African Journal of Legal Studies 1(1): 29–52.
Zorbas, E. (2009) What Does Reconciliation after Genocide Mean? Public Transcripts and Hidden Transcripts in Post-genocide Rwanda. Journal of Genocide Research 11(1): 127–147.
The authors are listed in alphabetical order. We thank Lee Ann Fujii, Francesca Grandi, Antoinette Handley, Edward Schatz, Livia Schubiger, and three anonymous reviewers for their thoughtful comments on previous versions of the article. The authors further thank Stathis Kalyvas, Elizabeth Wood, and participants in Yale University’s Program on Order, Conflict and Violence Speaker Series for their useful feedback on an early draft. Nick Caruana provided helpful research assistance. All errors remain our own. Izabela Steflja gratefully acknowledges the funding support of the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada and the Department of Political Science at the University of Toronto.
About this article
Cite this article
Steflja, I., Trisko Darden, J. Making Civilian Casualties Count: Approaches to Documenting the Human Cost of War. Hum Rights Rev 14, 347–366 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12142-013-0274-2
- Political violence
- Cost of War
- Civil War