Extensive commercial development occurred in China in the late Ming (1368–1644) and early Qing (1644–1911) dynasties and in 17th century England. In both countries the scale of activity and the institutional innovations that were introduced to safeguard transactions threatened the status rules of the hegemonic political culture. In England, however, these challenges were part of a larger panorama of change. Conceptions of law rooted in the past were refashioned to meet challenges posed by religious and political conflict as well as rapid commercial development. A new legal culture emerged that powerfully influenced the political culture. In China commercial expansion led to the development of novel banking and trading organizations. New patterns of social interaction came into being that existed side by side with inherited forms that had roots in antiquity. Tendencies favoring the evolution of Chinese political culture, however, were curtailed by political authority which upheld traditional Confucian culture and the legitimacy that this culture accorded to traditional elites. In both societies prevailing values and beliefs influenced the direction and degree of change in their political cultures.
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Tian, Y., Wilson, R.W. Commercial development and the evolution of political cultures: Ming/Qing China and 17th century England. East Asia 19, 147–180 (2001). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12140-001-0013-1