Advertisement

A Sociological Inquiry into “Arbitrary” Assigned Age Resettlement and Integration. A Case of the South Sudanese “Lost Boys” in the Greater Kansas City

  • Danvas Ogeto MabeyaEmail author
Article
  • 118 Downloads

Abstract

This study investigates the integration process of the Sudanese “Lost Boys” living in the greater Kansas City area. The “Lost Boys” are Sudanese refugees who relocated to the United States assisted by the US government as a result of intensely bloody and protracted warfare in their home country then known as Sudan (now South Sudan). The purpose of this study, in which data was collected from 40 “Boys” participating in the study, is to find integration experiences of these “Boys” in the greater Kansas area after resettlement in 2000. The specific goal of the study is to understand the degree of integration achieved by each participant during his 14-plus years living in the US. The study uses semi-structured interviews to assess the degree of integration. An adjunct inquiry explores what factors played a key role in enhancing or hindering their adjustment into American mainstream society.

Keywords

Refugees Unaccompanied minors Legal adults, assimilation US refugee policies Arbitrary assigned ages 

References

  1. Ager, A., & Strang, A. (2004). Indicators of integration: Final report. Edinburgh: Queen Margaret University College Retrieved from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rds/pdfs04/dpr28.pdf.Google Scholar
  2. Barry, E. (2000). Sudan’s Lost Boys find new home: orphaned survivors of a savage civil war settling in Boston. Globe Staff. Retrieved from www.boston.com/news/local/articles/2000/12/03/sudans_lost_boys_find_new_home/.
  3. Berger, L. (2004). Sudanese “Lost Boy” finds new life in suburban Kansas. Lawrence.com. Retrieved from http://www.lawrence.com/news/2004/nov/05/lostsudan/
  4. Bixler, M. (2005). The Lost Boys of Sudan: An American story of the refugee experience. Athens: The University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bonacich, E. (1972). A theory of ethnic antagonism: the split labor market. American Sociological Review, 37(5), 547–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brophy, M. (2003). Progress to universal primary education in southern Sudan: a short country case study. In Gender and education for all: The leap to equality-background paper prepared for the education for all global monitoring report 2003/4. Gender and education for all: The leap to equality. Paris: UNESCO Retrieved from http://unesdoc.unesco.org/images/0014/001467/146755e.pdf.Google Scholar
  7. Brown S. K., Bean D. F. (2006). Assimilation models, old and new: explaining a long-term process. Retrieved from: http://www.migrationpolicy.org/article/assimilation-models-old-and-new-explaining-long-term-process.
  8. Brown, A., & Scribner, T. (2014). Unfulfilled promises, future possibilities: the refugee resettlement system in the United States. Journal on Immigration and Human Security., 2(2014), 101–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruno, A. (2006). CRS Report for Congress: Refugee admissions and resettlement policy. Retrieved from http://www.wrapsnet.org/LinkClick.aspx?fileticket=dR%2FcVscHXNc%3D&;tabid=180&mid=605&language=ar-IQ.
  10. Eisenhardt, K. M. (1989). Building theories from case study research. Academy of Management Review, 14, 532–550.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Franklin, V. P. (2002). Introduction: cultural capital and African American education. The Journal of African American History., 87, 175–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gans, H. J. (1992). Second-generation decline: scenarios for the economic and ethnic futures of the post-1965 American immigrants. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 15(2), 173–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Gordon, M. M. (1964). Assimilation in American life: the role of race, religion, and national origins. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Halpern, P. (2008). Refugee economic self-sufficiency: an exploratory study of approaches used in Office of Refugee Resettlement Programs (Report Prepared for U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Office of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation). Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/pro-grams/orr/policy/sl07-08.htm.
  15. Hirschman, C. (2001). The educational enrollment of immigrant youth: a test of the segmented assimilation hypothesis. Demography, 38(3), 317–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Mabeya, D. O. (2011). Lost and found: Different integration patterns of the Sudanese Lost Boys living in Kansas City area after resettlement. Doctoral dissertation. Retrieved from http://gradworks.umi.com/34/58/3458420.html.
  17. Massey, D. S. (1986). The settlement process among Mexican migrants to the United States. American Sociological Review, 51, 670–685.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. McKinnon, S. L. (2008). Unsettling resettlement: Problematizing ‘lost boys of Sudan’ resettlement and identity. Western Journal of Communication, 72(4), 397–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Messina, J. J., & Messina, C. M. (2007). Coping.org: Tools for coping with life’s stressors; “The Lost Boys of Sudan” background history of the Lost Boys of Sudan.
  20. Muhindi M. M and Nyakato, K.N. (2002). Integration of the Sudanese “Lost Boys” In Boston,Massachusetts USA. Retrieved from: https://cis.mit.edu/sites/default/files/documents/IntegrationOfTheSudaneseLostBoys.pdf.
  21. Newland, K. (1995). Impact of U.S. Refugee Policies on U.S. Foreign Policy: a case of the tail wagging the dog? In S. Michael & M. Weiner (Eds.), Threatened peoples, threatened borders: world migration and U.S. Policy. New York: The American Assembly Retrieved from http://www.carnegieendowment.org/publications/index.cfm?fa=view&id=229.Google Scholar
  22. Park, R. E. (1928). Human migration and the marginal man. The American Journal of Sociology, 33, 881–893.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Patton, M. Q. (1990). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (2nd ed.). Newbury Park: Sage Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
  24. Portes, A., & Zhou, M. (1993). The new second generation: segmented assimilation and its variants. The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 530, 74–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ports, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (1996). Immigrant America: a portrait. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  26. Scott D (2016). A Canadian high-school basketball star has been arrested and is accused of actually being 30 years old. Retrieved from: http://www.businessinsider.com/canadian-high-school-basketball-star-accused-of-being-30-years-old-2016-4
  27. SIPA (2010). Refugee resettlement in the United States an examination of challenges and proposed solutions. Columbia University School of International and Public Affairs. Retrieved from: http://www.rcusa.org/uploads/pdfs/Columbia%20SIPA%20Report,%205-10.pdf
  28. Suarez-Orozco, C., & Suarez-Orozco, M. M. (2001). Children of immigration. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  29. The Economist (2013). The descent into civil war. Retrieved from: http://www.economist.com/blogs/baobab/2013/12/south-sudan
  30. U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (2003). Refugees in the United States. Annual ORR Reports to Congress – 2003. Retrieved from http://www.acf.hhs.gov/programs/orr/data/01arc8.htm
  31. U.S. Refugee Act of 1980. (1980). Pub. L. 96–212. 94 Stat 102.Google Scholar
  32. UNICEF (2001). A humanitarian appeal for children and women, January – December 2001. Retrieved 21 November 2008 from: http://www.unicef.org/emerg/Eme.PDF.
  33. United Nations Report of the UNHCR (2013). Part II Strategic Review pursuant to General Assembly Resolution 58/153. United Nations • New York. Retrieved from: http://www.unhcr.org/5244440f9.pdf
  34. Wasem R. E. (2011). U.S. Immigration Policy on Haitian Migrants. Congressional Research Service 7–5700. Retrieved from: https://fas.org/sgp/crs/row/RS21349.pdf Accessed 4 June 2018.
  35. Waters, M. (1990). Ethnic options: choosing identities in America. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  36. Werner, R; Anderson, W & Wheeler, A. (2001). Day of devastation, day of contentment: the history of the Sudanese church across 2000 years, Paulines Publications Africa. Google Scholar
  37. Woolley, J. T. and Peters, G. (1999). The American Presidency Project . Santa Barbara. Retrieved from http://www.presidency.ucsb.edu/ws/?pid=12253 Accessed 10 Feb 2010.
  38. Xie Y and Greenman, E. (2005). Segmented assimilation theory: a reformulation and empirical Test. Population Studies Center Research Report 05-581. Retrieved from: http://www.psc.isr.umich.edu/pubs/pdf/rr05-581.pdf.
  39. Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
  40. Zaretsky, E, Znaniecki, F, William I. T. (1996). Introduction. The Polish Peasant in Europe and America: A Classic Work in Immigration History. University of Illinois Press. ISBN 978-0-252-06484-5. Google Scholar
  41. Zhou, M. (1997a). Segmented assimilation: issues, controversies, and recent research on the new second generation. International Migration Review, 31(4), 975–1008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhou, M. (1997b). Growing up American: the challenge confronting immigrant children and children of immigrants. Annual Review of Sociology, 23, 63–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Southeast Community College, Education Square (ESQ)LincolnUSA

Personalised recommendations