Advertisement

The Costs of Secondary Migration: Perspectives from Local Voluntary Agencies in the USA

  • Jeffrey BloemEmail author
  • Scott Loveridge
Article

Abstract

In recent years, as the need for global refugee assistance has increased, so have fears and concerns of the costs of refugee resettlement in Western nations. Now, seemingly more than ever, international security and regional development depend largely on the composition and distribution of the world population. In many Western nations, dispersal policies are specifically designed to manage the distribution of recently arrived refugees. Secondary migration presents a challenge to the goals of dispersal policies and raises questions regarding regional development, population pressures, job security, welfare dependency, and the future of global refugee assistance. We survey administrators and caseworkers in a series of qualitative interviews about their experiences with secondary migration. We conclude that the US refugee resettlement system is ill-equipped in handling the complications of secondary migration. These results lead us to reimagine a better strategy for achieving the goals of refugee resettlement.

Keywords

Migration Refugees Resettlement Regional development 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the United States Department of Agriculture for support of this work.

References

  1. Abu-Laban, B., Derwing, T., Krahn, H., Mulder, M., & Wilkinson, L. (1999). The settlement experiences of refugees in Alberta. Ottawa: Citizenship and Immigration Canada.Google Scholar
  2. Anderson, R., Brama, A., & Holmqvist, E. (2010). Counteracting segregation: Swedish policies and experiences. Housing Studies, 25(2), 237–356.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Beaman, L. (2012). Social networks and the dynamics of labour market outcomes: evidence from refugees resettled in the U.S. The Review of Economic Studies, 79, 128–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Beer, A., & Foley, P. (2003). Housing need and provision for recently arrived refugees in Australia, Australia Housing and Urban Research Institute (AHURI). Melbourne: Southern Research Centre.Google Scholar
  5. Berry, J. (1997). Immigration, acculturation, and adaptation. Applied Psychology. An International Review, 46(1), 5–68.Google Scholar
  6. Bloch, A., & Schuster, L. (2005). At the extremes of exclusion: deportation, detention, and dispersal. Ethnic and Racial Studies, 36(3), 491–512.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bloem, J., Loveridge, S. (2017). The secondary migration of refugees resettled in the U.S. Forced Migration Review, Issue No. 54.Google Scholar
  8. Borjas, G. (2000a) Economics of migration. International Encyclopedia of the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Section No. 3.4, Article No. 38. Available at: <http://demografi.bps.go.id/phpfiletree/bahan/kumpulan_tugas_mobilitas_pak_chotib/Kelompok_10/Referensi_paper/Borjas_2000_Economics_of_Migration.pdf>.
  9. Borjas, G. (2000b). Ethnic enclaves and assimilation. Swedish Economic Policy Review, 7(2), 89–122.Google Scholar
  10. Boswell, C. (2003). Burden-sharing in the European Union: lessons from the German and UK experience. Journal of Refugee Studies, 16(3), 316–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bowles, S. (1970) Migration as investment: empirical tests of the human investment approach to geographical mobility. The Review of Economics and Statistics, 52(4), pp.356–362. Available at: <http://www.jstor.org/stable/1926312>
  12. Brubaker, R. (2001). The return of assimilation? Ethnic and Racial Studies, 24(4), 531–548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bryan, T.G. (1990). Southeast Asian refugee resettlement in San Diego, California, and Albuquerque, New Mexico. Master’s Thesis. The University of New Mexico.Google Scholar
  14. Burnley, I. H. (1982). Lebanese migration and settlement in Sydney, Australia. International Migration Review, 16(1), 102–132 Available at: <http://www.jstor.org/stable/2545244>.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Capps, R., Newland, K., Fratzke, S. G., Auclair, G., Fiz, M., & McHugh, M. (2015). The integration outcomes of U.S. refugees: successes and challenges. Washington DC: Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar
  16. Castles, S., Korac, M., Vasta, E., & Vertovec, S. (2001). Integration: mapping the field. London: Home Office Retrieved from http://www.homeoffice.gov.uk/rdspdfs2/rdsolr2803.doc.Google Scholar
  17. Church World Service (2013) The effects of moving. Tri-Agency Webinar. May 23, 2013. Shared with permission by Bethany Christian Services.Google Scholar
  18. CIC (Canadian Immigration and Citizenship). (2001). Pursuing Canada’s commitment to immigration: the immigration plan for 2002. Ottawa: Minister of Public Works and Government Services Canada.Google Scholar
  19. Deuchar, R. (2011). People look at us, the way we dress, and they think we’re gangsters: bonds, bridges, gangs and refugees: a qualitative study of inter-cultural social capital in Glasgow. Journal of Refugee Studies, 24(4), 672–689.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Edin, P. A., Fredriksson, P., & Aslund, O. (2003). Ethnic enclaves and the economic success of immigrants: evidence from a natural experiment. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 118, 312–357.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ellison, J. (2009) Lewiston, Maine, revived by Somali immigrants. Newsweek. 1/16/19. Available at: <http://www.newsweek.com/lewiston-maine-revived-somali-immigrants-78475>.
  22. Evans, W. and Fitzgerald, D. (2017) The economic and social outcomes of refugees in the United States: evidence from the ACS NBER Working Paper No. 23498. Google Scholar
  23. Fennelly, K. (2005). Latinos, Africans, and Asians in the North Star State: immigrant communities in Minnesota. In E. M. Gozdziak & S. F. Martin (Eds.), Beyond the gateway: immigrants in a changing America. Migration and Refugee Studies series. Lanham: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
  24. Finney, N., & Robinson, V. (2008). Local press, dispersal and community in the construction of asylum debates. Social and Cultural Geography, 9(4), 397–413.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fiori-Khayat, C. (2008). Ethnicity and juvenile street gangs in France. In F. Van Gemert, D. Peterson, & I. L. Lien (Eds.), Street gangs, migration and ethnicity (pp. 156–172). Portland: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  26. Forbes, S. (1984). Residency patterns and secondary migration of refugees. Migration News, 34(1), 3–18 Available at: <http://europepmc.org/abstract/MED/12178947>.Google Scholar
  27. Fozdar, F., & Hartley, L. (2013). Refugee resettlement in Australia: what we know and need to know. Refugee Survey Quarterly, 32(3), 23–51 Available at: <http://ezproxy.msu.edu:2047/login?url=https://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=poh&AN=90069804&scope=site>.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hall, M.S. (2007) Moving on and moving up: interstate migration in the process of immigrant assimilation. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association. Available at: <http://research.allacademic.com/meta/p_mla_apa_research_citation/1/8/2/3/5/p182350_index.html>.
  29. Harte, W., Childs, I., & Hastings, P. (2009). Settlement patterns of African refugee communities in Southeast Queensland. Australian Geographer, 40(1), 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Haug, S. (2008). Migration networks and migration decision making. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 34(4), 585–605.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Huisman, K. (2011) Why Maine? Secondary migration decisions of Somali refugees. Irinkerindo: A Journal of African Migration. (5). Available at: <http://www.africamigration.com/Issue%205/Articles/PDF/Kimberly-Huisman_Why-Maine.pdf>.
  32. Hume, S., & Hardwick, S. (2005). African, Russian, and Ukrainian refugee resettlement in Portland, Oregon. Geographical Review, 95(2), 189–209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hyndman, J., & McLean, J. (2006). Settling like a state: Acehnese refugees in Vancouver. Journal of Refugee Studies, 19(3), 345–360 Available at: <http://jrs.oxfordjournals.org/content/19/3/345>.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hyndman, J., Schuurman, N., & Fiedler, R. (2006). Size matters: attracting immigrants to Canadian cities. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 7(1), 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Jacobsen, K. (2006). Refugees and asylum seekers in urban areas: a livelihood perspective. Journal of Refugee Studies, 19, 273 Available at: http://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/jrefst19&id=279&div=&collection=journals.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Jensen, L., & Yang, T. (2009). Taken by surprise: new immigrants in the rural United States. In B. Jentsch & M. Simard (Eds.), International migration and rural areas—global perspectives. Hampshire: Ashgate Publishing, Ltd..Google Scholar
  37. Kahneman, D., & Tversky, A. (1979). Prospect theory: an analysis of decision under risk. Econometrica, 47(2), 263–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Krahn, H., Derwing, T. M., & Abu-Laban, B. (2005). The retention of newcomers in second- and third-tier Canadian cities1. International Migration Review, 39(4), 872–894 Available at: <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1747-7379.2005.tb00292.x/abstract>.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Lamba, N., & Krahn, H. (2003). Social capital and refugee resettlement: the social networks of refugees in Canada. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 4(3), 335–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Maine Department of Health and Human Services, Office of Multicultural Affairs. (2009). Multicultural resources—introduction to immigration. Available at: <http://www.maine.gov/dhhs/oma/MulticulturalResource/intro.html>.
  41. Marks, J. (2014) Rural refugee resettlement: secondary migration and community integration in Fort Morgan, Colorado. New Issues in Refugee Resettlement, UNHCR. New York, New York. Research Paper No. 269 Available at: <http://www.unhcr.org/5326c7cd9.html>.
  42. Massey, D. S. (Ed.). (2008). New faces in new places: the changing geography of American immigration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  43. McConnell, E. D., & Miraftab, F. (2009). Sundown town to ‘little Mexico’: old-timers and newcomers in an American small town. Rural Sociology, 74(4), 605–629.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Mekraz, A., N. Bleeker, J. Cooper, A. Dickman, M. Gamez, R. Grassl-Bradley, L. Hansen, D. Kelly, D. Means, F. Mohs, A. Pontynen, D. Shelton-Williams, W. Tisdale. (2012). The Somali community in Barron, Wisconsin, and the American dream A Report of the Wisconsin Advisory Committee to the United States Commission on Civil Rights. Google Scholar
  45. Morrice, L. (2007). Lifelong learning and the social integration of refugees in the UK: the significance of social capital. International Journal of Lifelong Education, 26(2), 155–172.  https://doi.org/10.1080/02601370701219467.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Mott, T. (2010). African resettlement in the US: the role and significance of voluntary agencies. Journal of Cultural Geography, 27(1), 1–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Nann, R.C. (1982). Uprooting and surviving—an overview. In R. Nanucci (Ed.), Uprooting and surviving. Priority issues in mental health. Springer Netherlands, pp. 1–10. Available at: <http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-94-009-7734-1_1>.
  48. Nowrasteh, Alex (2016) Terrorism and immigration Cato Institute Policy Analysis, No. 798.Google Scholar
  49. ORR–Office of Refugee Resettlement. (2012) The Refugee Act. Published: August 29, 2012. Available at: <www.acf.gov/programs/orr/resource/the-refugee-act>.
  50. Ott, E. (2011). Get up and go: refugee resettlement and secondary migration in the USA. New Issues in Refugee Research. New York: UNHCR Retrieved from <http://www.unhcr.org/4e5f9a079.pdf.>.Google Scholar
  51. Robinson, V. (2003). Redefining the ‘problem’ and challenging the assumption. In V. Robinson, R. Andersson, & S. Musterd (Eds.), Spreading the ‘burden’? A review of policies to disperse asylum seekers and refugees (pp. 159–177). Bristol: Policy Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Schech, S. (2012). Seeing like a region: parliamentary discourses on asylum seekers and refugees in Scotland and South Australia. Population, Space and Place, 18(1), 58–73 Available at: <http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/psp.649/abstract>.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Schech. (2014). Silent bargain or rural cosmopolitanism? Refugee settlement in regional Australia. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 40(4), 601–618.  https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2013.830882.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Schwei, T., & Fennely, K. (2007). Diversity coalitions in rural Minnesota communities. CURA Reporter, Winter.Google Scholar
  55. Sherrell, K., Hyndman, J., & Preniqi, F. (2005). Sharing the wealth, spreading the “burden”: the non-metropolitan settlement of Kosovar refugees in British Columbia. Canadian Journal of Ethnic Studies, 37(3), 75–95.Google Scholar
  56. Simich, L., Beiser, M., & Mawani, F. (2002). Paved with good intentions: Canada’s refugee destining policy and paths of secondary migration. Canadian Public Policy / Analyse de Politiques, 28(4), 597–607 Available at: <http://www.jstor.org/stable/3552217>.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Simich, L., Beiser, M., & Mawani, F. (2003). Social support and the significance of shared experience in refugee migration and resettlement. Western Journal of Nursing Research, 25(7), 872–891 Available at: <http://wjn.sagepub.com/content/25/7/872>.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Singer, A., & Wilson, J. H. (2006). From “there” to “here”: refugeeresettlement in Metropolitan America. Washington D.C.: The Brookings Institution Available at: <http://www.brookings.edu/research/reports/2006/09/demographics-singer>.Google Scholar
  59. Sjaastad, L. A. (1962). The costs and returns of human migration. Journal of Political Economy, 70, 80–93.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Stewart, E. S. (2012). UK dispersal policy and onward migration: mapping the current state of knowledge. Journal of Refugee Studies, 25(1), 25–49 Available at: <http://jrs.oxfordjournals.org/content/25/1/25> (Accessed December 26, 2014).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Stull, D. (1998). On the cutting edge: changes in Midwestern meatpacking communities. The Rural and Regional Essay Series. Society for the Study of Local and Regional History.Google Scholar
  62. Torres, R. M., Popke, J., & Hapke, H. M. (2006). The South’s silent bargain: rural reconstructuring, Latino labor and the ambiguities of migrant experience. In H. A. Smith & O. J. Furuseth (Eds.), Latinos in the new south: transformations of place (pp. 37–68). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  63. U.S. Census Bureau (2013) State-to-state migration flows Available online: www.census.gov.
  64. UNHCR (2016) Figures at a glance Available at: <http://www.unhcr.org/en-us/figures-at-a-glance.html>.
  65. Vinokurov, A., Birman, D., & Trickett, E. (2000). Psychological and acculturation correlates of work status among Soviet Jewish refugees in the United States. International Migration Review, 34(2), 538–559.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Walton-Roberts, M. (2005). Regional immigration and dispersal: lessons from small- and medium-sized urban centers in British Columbia. Canadian Ethnic Studies Journal, 37(3), 12–23 Available at: <http://www.confmanager.com/main.cfm?cid=128&nid=1805>.Google Scholar
  67. Weine, S. M., Hoffman, Y., Ware, N., Tugenberg, T., Hakizimana, L., Dahnweign, G., Currie, M., & Wagner, M. (2011). Secondary migration and relocation among African refugee families in the United States. Family Process, 50(1), 27–46 Available at: <http://search.proquest.com.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/docview/857923683?pq-origsite=summon>.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Werker, E. (2007). Refugee camp economies. Journal of Refugee Studies, 20(3), 461–480 Available at: <http://jrs.oxfordjournals.org.proxy2.cl.msu.edu/content/20/3/461>.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Wong, M. (1995) Emerging patterns of African refugee resettlement in the United States. Master’s Thesis. Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton.Google Scholar
  70. Wortley, S., & Tanner, J. (2008). Respect, friendship and racial injustice: justifying gang membership in a Canadian City. In F. Van Gemert, D. Peterson, & I. L. Lien (Eds.), Street gangs, migration and ethnicity (pp. 192–208). Portland: Willan Publishing.Google Scholar
  71. Wren, K. (2003). Refugee dispersal in Denmark: from macro- to micro-scale analysis. International Journal of Population Geography, 9(1), 57–75.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Zavodny, M. (1999). Determinants of recent immigrants’ locational choices. International Migration Review, 33(4), 1014–1030 Available at: <http://www.jstor.org/stable/2547361>.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V., part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied EconomicsUniversity of MinnesotaMinneapolisUSA
  2. 2.Department of Agricultural, Food, and Resource EconomicsMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations