Receptivity’s Construction in Public Schools: a Component of Immigrant Integration in an Emerging Gateway
- 387 Downloads
Community receptivity, a critical component in integration processes, is a place’s collective response to newcomers. It is a constructed context in which the experiences of settlement and adjustment for both immigrants and non-immigrants occur. Receptivity is fluid, shaped by multi-scalar components of a community’s political, economic, social, and cultural spheres. In traditional gateways, the evolving interplay of long-established forces guides receptivity. But in new gateways, front line providers that encounter the initial settlement needs of immigrants are the vanguard of constructing the broader community’s warmth of immigrant welcome. This case study of three elementary schools in Charlotte, NC demonstrates the role of public schools as a site of receptivity’s early construction within an emerging gateway. We argue that teachers are creating receptivity building blocks within their classrooms, guiding the construction of receptivity within their schools, among the school board, the school district, and the city as a whole.
KeywordsImmigration Community receptivity New immigrant gateways Public schools
We would like to thank the individuals in Charlotte, NC who participated in this study and the anonymous reviewers for their feedback.
- Charlotte International Cabinet. (2014). Immigrant integration task force. Charlotte, NC: City of Charlotte.Google Scholar
- Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools. (2015). About us. Charlotte: Charlotte Mecklenburg Schools. http://www.cms.k12.nc.us/mediaroom/aboutus/Pages/default.aspx. Last Accessed 17 Dec 2015.
- Creswell, J. W., & Plano-Clark, V. L. (2007). Designing and conducting mixed methods research. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
- De Graauw, E., & Vermeulen, F. (2016). Cities and the politics of immigrant integration: a comparison of Berlin, Amsterdam, New York City, and San Francisco. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies. https://doi.org/10.1080/1369183X.2015.1126089.
- De Jong, G. F., & Tran, Q.-G. (2001). Warm welcome, cool welcome: mapping receptivity toward immigrants in the U.S. Population Today, 29(8), 1–4.Google Scholar
- Fetzer, J. S. (2000). Public attitudes toward immigration in the United States, France, and Germany. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Filomeno, F. A. (2015). The migration-development nexus in local immigration policy: Baltimore City and the Hispanic diaspora. Urban Affairs Review. https://doi.org/10.1177/1078087415614920.
- Foner, N. (2008). New York City: America’s classic immigrant gateway. In M. Price & L. Benton-Short (Eds.), Migrants to the metropolis: the rise of immigrant gateway cities. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
- Furuseth, O., & Smith, H. (2014). Who are Charlotte-Mecklenburg immigrants? Charlotte: UNC Charlotte Urban Institute.Google Scholar
- Gaillard, F. (2006). The dream long deferred: the landmark struggle for desegregation in Charlotte, North Carolina. Columbia: University of South Carolina Press.Google Scholar
- Hall, M., Singer, A., De Jong, G. F., & Graefe, D. R. (2011). The geography of immigrant skills: educational profiles of metropolitan areas. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
- Hanchett, T. (2010). Salad-bowl suburbs: a history of Charlotte’s east side and South Boulevard immigrant corridors. In W. Graves & H. A. Smith (Eds.), Charlotte, NC: the global evolution of a new south city. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
- Harwood, S. A. (2009). Racialized regulation: Planning in the face of anti-immigrant sentiment. Progressive Planning, 178, 8–9.Google Scholar
- Hay, I. (2005). Qualitative research methods in human geography. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Housel, J., Saxen, C., & Wahlrab, T. (2016). Experiencing intentional recognition: welcoming immigrants in Dayton. Ohio. Urban Studies. https://doi.org/10.1177/0042098016653724.
- Jensen, L. (2006). New immigrant settlements in rural America: problems, prospects, and policies. Durham, NH: Carsey Institute, University of New Hampshire.Google Scholar
- Jiménez, T. R. (2011). Immigrants in the United States: how well are they integrating into society? Washington, DC: Migration Policy Institute.Google Scholar
- Kandel, W. A., & Parrado, E. A. (2006). Hispanic population growth and public school response in two new south immigrant destinations. In H. A. Smith & O. J. Furuseth (Eds.), Latinos in the new south: transformations of place. Burlington, VT: Ashgate Publishing Company.Google Scholar
- Lester, W. T., & Nguyen, M. T. (2015). The economic integration of immigrants and regional resilience. Journal of Urban Affairs. https://doi.org/10.1111/juaf.12205.
- McDaniel, P. N., Harden, S. B., Smith, H. A., & Furuseth, O. J. (2017). Increasing immigrant settlement and the challenges and opportunities for public education in Charlotte, North Carolina. In S. Salas & P. R. Portes (Eds.), US Latinization: Education and the New Latino South. Albany: SUNY Press.Google Scholar
- Mickelson, R. A., Smith, S. S., & Nelson, A. H. (2015). Yesterday, today, and tomorrow: school desegregation and resegregation in Charlotte. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
- Nguyen, M. T., & Gill, H. (2010). The cost and consequences of local immigration enforcement in North Carolina. Chapel Hill, NC: Center for Global Initiatives, The University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
- Odem, M. E., & Lacy, E. (2009). Latino immigrants and the transformation of the U.S. South. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
- Pandit, K., & Holloway, S. R. (2005). New immigrant geographies of United States metropolitan areas. Geographical Review, 95(2), iii–vi.Google Scholar
- Pastor, M., & Mollenkopf, J. (2012). Struggling over strangers or receiving with resilience? The metropolitics of immigrant integration. In N. Pindus, M. Weir, H. Wial, & H. Wolman (Eds.), Urban and regional policy and its effects (Vol. 4). Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
- Plaisance, M., Morrell, E., & McDaniel, P. (2015). From black and white to technicolor: demographic change in the Charlotte-Mecklenburg schools. In R. A. Mickelson, S. S. Smith, & A. H. Nelson (Eds.), Yesterday, today, and tomorrow: school desegregation and resegregation in Charlotte. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
- Plyler v. Doe, 457 U.S. 202 (1982).Google Scholar
- Pottie-Sherman, Y. (2017). Austerity urbanism and the promise of immigrant- and refugee-centered urban revitalization in the US Rust Belt. Urban Geography. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02723638.2017.1342398.
- Price, M., & Benton-Short, L. (2008). Migrants to the metropolis: the rise of immigrant gateway cities. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
- Reitz, J. G. (1998). The warmth of the welcome. Boulder, CO: Westview Press.Google Scholar
- Schuch, J. C., Urquieta de Hernandez, B., Williams, L., Smith, H. A., Sorensen, J., Furuseth, O. J., & Dulin, M. F. (2014). Por Nuestros Ojos: understanding social determinants of health through the eyes of youth. Progress in Community Health Partnerships: Research, Education, and Action, 8(2), 197–205.Google Scholar
- Sharma, M. (2014). The changing South! An examination of residential intermixing and neighbourhood contexts in Knoxville, Tennessee. Regional Science Policy & Practice, 6(2), 153–175.Google Scholar
- Silbermann, A. (1967). Systematische Inhaltsanalyse. In R. König (Ed.), Handbuch der empirischen Sozialforschung (Vol. 1, 2nd ed., pp. 570–600). Stuttgart: Enke.Google Scholar
- Singer, A. (2004). The rise of new immigrant gateways. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
- Singer, A. (2015). Metropolitan immigrant gateways revisited, 2014. Washington, DC: The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
- Singer, A., Hardwick, S. W., & Brettell, C. B. (2008). Twenty-first century gateways: Immigrant incorporation in suburban America. Washington DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
- Smith, S. S. (2004). Boom for whom? Education, desegregation, and development in Charlotte. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, H. A. (2008). The untraditional geography of Hispanic settlement in a new south city: Charlotte, North Carolina. In R. C. Jones (Ed.), Immigrants outside megalopolis: ethnic transformation in the heartland. Lanham, MD: Lexington Books.Google Scholar
- Smith, S. S. (2010). Development and the politics of school desegregation and Resegregation. In W. Graves & H. A. Smith (Eds.), Charlotte, NC: the global evolution of a new south CITY. Athens, GA: The University of Georgia Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, H. A., & Furuseth, O. J. (2008). The “nuevo south”: Latino place making and community building in the middle-ring suburbs of Charlotte. In A. Singer, S. W. Hardwick, & C. B. Brettell (Eds.), Twenty-first century gateways: immigrant incorporation in suburban America. Washington DC: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
- Steephen, A., Nguyen, M. T., & Gill, H. (2013). A study of innovative integration strategies. Carolina Planning Journal, 38(1), 9–16.Google Scholar
- Tashakkori, A., & Teddlie, C. (1998). Mixed methodology: combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
- Teixeira, C., Li, W., & Kobayashi, A. (2012). Immigrant geographies of North American cities. Don Mills, Ontario: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Wang, Q., & Morrell, E. (2015). Gender and entrepreneurship revisited from a community perspective: experiences in a new immigrant gateway and beyond. Environment and Planning A, 47(12), 2645–2662.Google Scholar
- Welcoming America. (2012). Welcoming cities: framing the conversation. Decatur, GA: Welcoming America http://www.welcomingamerica.org/sites/default/files/Welcoming-Cities-Framing-Paper-Updated.pdf. Last Accessed on 18 Dec 2015.Google Scholar
- Williamson, A. (2011). Beyond the passage of time: local government response in new immigrant destinations (p. 357). Cambridge, MA: Harvard University.Google Scholar
- Winders, J. (2013). Nashville in the new millennium: immigrant settlement, urban transformation, and social belonging. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Yin, R. K. (1994). Case study research: design and methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc..Google Scholar