Multicultural Media Use and Immigrant Settlement: A Comparative Study of Four Communities in Ottawa, Canada
- 318 Downloads
Multicultural media serve as important sources of information for immigrant settlement. However, little is known about the role of multicultural media in the process of immigrant settlement. Our aim was to address this gap and to advance understanding of multicultural media use and immigrant settlement through a detailed empirical study involving four ethnocultural and immigrant communities (EICs)—the Chinese, Spanish-speaking Latin American, Somali, and South Asian—in Ottawa, Canada. Using a conceptual framework combining notions of immigrant contexts of reception, and immigrant settlement and information seeking, we present and analyze the findings of a large survey data set (N = 1212) comparing types of multicultural print, broadcast, and digital media use by immigration category, length of stay, and yearly household income. Based on our findings, we argue that variations exist in the use of multicultural media both within and across the four participating EICs; while factors such as availability of multicultural media as well as length of stay in Canada and, to some extent, household income play a role, immigration category is less significant. Furthermore, we advance that although EICs do use various types of multicultural media, they tend to favor digital media. These findings contribute to improved understanding of the role of multicultural media use in the everyday lives of EICs and provide directions for future research and for the development of relevant policies and practices to address immigrant information needs and facilitate their settlement process.
KeywordsMulticultural media Immigrant settlement Ethnocultural and immigrant communities Survey Ottawa, Canada
We acknowledge the funding received from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC) for the broader project of which this study is a part. We also acknowledge the collaboration and dedication of everyone involved with the project. A special acknowledgement is extended to our survey participants, project team, research assistants, partners, collaborators, and volunteers.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Research Ethics Board approval has been obtained from the University of Ottawa to conduct this study.
This study was funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC, Project no. 890-2010-0137).
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Alegado, K. (2009). Somalia and the digital world. Unpublished International Media Research Paper. www.plu.edu%2F~aledadkt%2Fdocuments%2Fsomalia%2520and%2520the%2520digital%. Accessed 22 April 2015.Google Scholar
- Baffoe, M. (2012). Projecting their own images: the role of the Black ethnic media in reconstructing the identities and images of ethnic minorities in Canadian society. Journal of Alternative Perspectives in the Social Sciences, 5(1), 28–52.Google Scholar
- Dekker, R., & Engbersen, G. (2012). How social media transform migrant networks and facilitate migration. Working Paper, International Migration Institute, University of Oxford.Google Scholar
- Feng, Y. L., & Nza, V. E. (2011). Impact of Spanish-Speaking media technologies on Latino university students’ bicultural identity development. Journal of Border Educational Resarch, 10(1), 192–214.Google Scholar
- Fleras, A. (2011). The media gaze: representation of diversities in Canada. Vancouver: UBC Press.Google Scholar
- Fokkema, T., Lessard-Phillips, L., Bachmeier, J. D., & Brown, S. K. (2012). The link between the transnational behaviour and integration of the second generation in European and American cities. Does the context of reception matter? Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 2(2), 111–123. doi: 10.2478/v10202-011-0033-x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Hallden, K., le Grand, E., & Hellgren, Z. (2008) (Eds.). Ethnicity and social divisions: contemporary research in sociology. New Castle, UK: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
- Huston, G. A., & National Ethnic Press and Media Council of Canada (NEPMCC). (2012). Canada’s ethnic media: fostering dialogue, forging the engagement and integration of new Canadians, uniting our communities in Canada’s diversity and multiculturalism responsibility: a national socio-economic report on Canada’s community-based ethnic/third language media. North York, Ontario: National Ethnic Press and Media Council of Canada. http://www.nepmcc.ca/press%20release/td2012.htm. Accessed 1 April 2015.
- Jiang, Y. (2013). The use of Weibo to connect Chinese communities in Australia by Australian politicians. Asian Pacific Public Relations Journal, 14(1–2), 69–84.Google Scholar
- Karim, K. H. (Ed.). (2003). The media of diaspora. Transnationalism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- King, R., & Wood, N. (Eds.). (2013). Media and migration. Constructions of mobility and difference. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kong, S. (2013). Space of possibilities: civic discourse and multicultural citizenship in locally produced Chinese television programs in Metro Vancouver. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 14(1), 119–138.Google Scholar
- Lull, J. (2013). Media, communication, culture. A global approach (2nd ed.). Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
- Matsaganis, M., Katz, V. S., & Ball-Rokeach, S. J. (2011). Understanding ethnic media: producers, consumers, and societies. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar
- Murray, C. (2008). Media infrastructure for multicultural diversity. Policy Options, 29(4), 63–66.Google Scholar
- Murray, C. Yu, S., & Ahadi, D. (2007). Cultural diversity and ethnic media in BC. A report to Canadian Heritage Western Regional Office. http://www.bcethnicmedia.ca/Research/cultural-diversity-report-oct-07.pdf. Accessed 19 May 2015.
- Mwarigha, M. S. (2002). Towards a framework for local responsibility: taking action to end the current limbo in immigrant settlement: Toronto. Toronto: Maytree Foundation. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:t10vovYavvgJ:www.urbancenter.utoronto.ca/pdfs/elibrary/Maytree_Immigrant-Settlemen.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca. Accessed 25 March 2015.
- Ottawa Local Immigration Partnership (OLIP) (n.d.). Ottawa immigration strategy. http://olip-plio.ca/what-we-do/ottawa-immigration-strategy/. Accessed 6 May 2015.
- Papillon, M. (2002). Immigration, diversity and social inclusion in Canada’s cities. Ottawa: Canadian Policy Research Networks. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:kMK0R88gqdsJ:cprn.org/documents/17243_en.pdf+&cd=1&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca. Accessed 26 March 2015.
- Payne, G. (2008). Mediated communication and integration of diasporic communities: toward a theoretical model. Global Media Journal, 8(14). https://lass.calumet.purdue.edu/cca/gmj/sp09/gmj-sp09-payne.htm. Accessed 15 March 2015.
- Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (1996). Immigrant America: a portrait. Berkeley: University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001). Legacies: the story of the immigrant second generation. New York: Russell Sage.Google Scholar
- Rhodes, L. D. (2010). The American press: shaping the American dream. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
- Shumow, M. (2010). “A foot in both worlds”: transnationalism and media use among Venezuelan immigrants in South Florida. International Journal of Communication, 4, 377–397. http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:_pmrf9LvqQ4J:www.shatterbe.lt/wp-content/uploads/2013/07/Foot-in-both-worlds.pdf+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=ca. Accessed 15 March 2015.
- Smith, R. C. (2013). Comparing local-level Swedish and Mexican transnational life: an essay in historical retrieval. In L. Pries (Ed.), New transnational social spaces: international migration and transnational companies in the early twenty-first century (pp. 37–58). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Statistics Canada (2011). Canadian Internet use survey 2010. The Daily, May 25. Accessed 20 March 2015.Google Scholar
- Statistics Canada. (2013). Immigration and ethnocultural diversity in Canada. Analytical document. National Household Survey, 2011. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/nhs-enm/2011/as-sa/99-010-x/99-010-x2011001-eng.pdf. Accessed 1 March 2015.
- Veenhof, B., Wellman, B., Quell. C., & Hogan, B. (2008). How Canadians’ use of the Internet affects social life and civic participation (29 pp.). Connectedness Series, Statistics Canada, cat. no. 56F0004M, no. 16. Percentage of Internet/email users who used the Internet in the previous month to communicate with family and friends, Canada, 2003. In Statistics Canada. Accessed 1 April 2015.Google Scholar
- Viswanath, K., & Arora, P. (2000). Ethnic media in the United States: an essay on their role in integration, assimilation, and social control. Mass communication & Socieity, 3(1), 39–56.Google Scholar
- Wayland, S. V. (2006). Unsettled: legal and policy barriers for newcomers to Canada. A Joint Initiative of Community Foundations of Canada and the Law Commission of Canada. Ottawa: Law Commission of Canada. http://www.cfc-fcc.ca/doc/LegalPolicyBarriers.pdf. Accessed 26 March 2015.
- Yu, S., & Ahadi, D. (2010). Promoting civic engagement through ethnic media. PLATFORM: Journal of Media and Communication, 2(2), 54–71.Google Scholar