Surrogate Guardian: Responsibility to Protect Migrants in Disasters and Responses by the Japanese State
This paper addresses the urgent and understudied issue of how to protect migrants stranded by disasters in their countries of destination, focusing on the roles of institutions and state actors in migrant-receiving nations. It explains how migrant displacement can be understood in terms of international norms concerning internal displacement. Then, it argues that the migrant-receiver state bears the primary responsibility for protecting displaced migrants who fit the category of “internally displaced persons (IDPs)” and assisting their short- and longer-term recoveries. A case study of Japan illustrates how these concepts are adopted in a real situation. Overall, this disaster-prone nation has been fulfilling its protection duties toward the vulnerable migrant population by building inclusive and equitable protection mechanisms. But, such activism is more salient at lower levels than at the upper level of the state. Highlighting the legal, normative, and institutional gaps of migrant protection from disasters at international and national levels, this paper elucidates the merits of considering at-risk migrants as IDPs and their host state as the primary guardian, so as to build a more adaptive and resilient disaster mitigation framework in culturally diverse environments.
KeywordsInternally displaced persons (IDPs) Migrants Disaster protection Japan
I am very grateful to Mark Kesselman, Ryuji Mukae, Joseph Rose, Mika Shimizu, and two anonymous peer reviewers for their valuable and pointed comments and suggestions.
- Abe, Y. (1995). Daishinsaino hōto seisaku: hanshin awaji daishinsaini manabu seisaku hōgaku (Law and policies relevant to a large-scale earthquake: a public policy and legal study with the case of the great Hanshin-Awaji earthquake). Tokyo: Nihon Hyōronsha.Google Scholar
- Aihara, H. (2011). “Ruwanda umare, fukushimato ikiru (Born in Rwanda, living with Fukushima).” Nikkei Business (August 17). www.http//business.nikkeibp.co.jp/article/life/20110809/222018/ST.
- Aldrich, D. (2015). “It’s who you know: factors driving recovery from Japan’s 11 March 2011 disaster” (June). http://works.bepress.com/daniel_aldrich/30. Accessed in June 2015.
- Amnesty International. (2005). “Thailand, the plight of Burmese migrant workers.” http://www.amnesty.org/en/library/asset/ASA39/001/2005/en/7003d6fd-d4e2-11dd-8a23-d58a49c0d652/asa390012005en.pdf. Accessed in April 2013.
- Asian Development Bank and Asian Development Bank Institute. (2013). Disaster risk management in Asia and the Pacific. Issues Paper (April). Tokyo: Asian Development Bank Institute.Google Scholar
- Bellamy, A. J., & Beeson, M. (2010). The responsibility to protect in Southeast Asia: can ASEAN reconcile humanitarianism and sovereignty? Asian Security, 6(3), 262–279.Google Scholar
- Betts, A. (2014). The global governance of crisis migration. In S. F. Martin, S. Weerasinghe, & A. Taylor (Eds.), Humanitarian crises and migration (pp. 349–367). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Birmingham, L., & McNeill, D. (2012). Strong in the rain: surviving Japan’s earthquake, tsunami, and Fukushima nuclear disaster. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Bloomberg News. (2005). “Mexico’s Fox says U.S. to give disaster aid to illegal migrants” (September 9).Google Scholar
- Citynet Yokohama (2014). Citynet Yokohama Tsushin 3 (September). http://www.citynet-yh.org/jp/wp-content/uploads/2014/09/CYOletter-vol3-web.pdf.pdf. Accessed 31 July 2015.
- Cohen, R. (2008). “The Burma Cyclone and the Responsibility to Protect.” Congressional Briefing on Security for a New Century at Brookings Institution (July 21). http://www.brookings.edu/research/speeches/2008/07/21-myanmar-cohen.
- Cohen, R. (2013). “Lessons learned from the development of guiding principles on internal displacement.” The Crisis Migration Project. Working Paper (October). Washington, D.C.: Georgetown University. http://issuu.com/georgetownsfs/docs/isim_working_paper_series_-_roberta.
- Cohen, R., & Deng, F. M. (1998). Masses in flight: the global crisis of internal displacement. Washington: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
- Cohen, R., & Deng, F. M. (2009). “Mass displacement caused by conflicts and one-sided violence: national and international responses.” SIPRI Yearbook 2009: Armaments, Disarmament and International Security. http://www.sipri.org/yearbook/2009/01.
- Cox, A., & Posner, E. (2009). “Rights of Migrants: An Optimal Contract Framework.” New York University Law Review 84 (April), 1403–1462.Google Scholar
- Davies, L. (2013). Why Lampedusa remains an island of hope for migrants. The Guardian (October 17)Google Scholar
- Egawa, I. (1997). Hanshin awaji daishinsai niokeru gaikojujin jūminto chiiki komyunitii (Foreign residents and the local community after the Great Hanshin-Awaji Earthquake in Japan: steps toward multicultural society). Kobe: Kobe Shoka Daigaku.Google Scholar
- Esplanada, J. E. (2011). “112 Filipinos so far relocated from Japan’s disasters.” Philippine Daily Inquirer (March 20).Google Scholar
- Evans, G. (2009). “The responsibility to protect in environmental emergencies.” Presented to the 103rd Annual Meeting of American Society of International Law, Washington, DC. http://www.crisisgroup.org/en/publication-type/speeches/2009/the-responsibility-to-protect-in-environmental-emergencies.aspx. Accessed in November 2012.
- Evans, G., Sahnoun, M., et al. (2001). “The responsibility to protect.” International Commission on Intervention and State Sovereignty. http://responsibilitytoprotect.org/ICISS%20Report.pdf.
- Ferris, E. (2011). The politics of protection: the limits of humanitarian action. Washington: Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
- Freeman, O. (2014). “Civil protection in diverse societies: migrants, asylum seekers and refugees in the context of major risks prevention and management.” Intercultural Cities: Thematic Papers. Strasbourg: European and Mediterranean Major Hazards Agreement (November 5).Google Scholar
- Funeidini, R. (2011). State and non-state actors in evacuations during the conflict in Lebanon. In K. Koser & S. Martin (Eds.), The migration-displacement nexus: patterns, processes, and policies (pp. 197–215). New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
- Gaikokujin Jishin Jōhō Sentā (GJJS). (1996). Hanshin daishinsai to gaikokujin: Tabunka kyōsei shakai no genjō to kanōsei (The Great Hanshin earthquake and foreign residents: current situations and a potential of a multicultural society). Tokyo: Akashi Shobo.Google Scholar
- Hida, Y. (1995). “Zoku zoku Hanshin daishinsai to gaikokujin (The Great Hanshin Earthquake and foreign residents, the third version), Mukuge Tsūshin 151. http://www.ksyc.jp/mukuge/151/hida.html. Accessed in April 2011.
- Hōmushō, Nyūkoku kanri-kyoku. (2011) “Higashinihon daishinsainiyoru hisaigaikokujinno shienni kansuru kokusaiijūkikan (IOM) tono kyōryokuni tsuite (On the cooperation with the IOM regarding assistance to foreigners affected by the eastern Japan earthquake)” (April 8).Google Scholar
- Hugo, G. (2014). “Governance and institutional issues in migration in Asia”. In G. Shabbir Cheema, C. A. McNally, & P. Vesselim (Eds.), Cross-border governance in Asia: regional issues and mechanisms, 24–92. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.Google Scholar
- Human Rights Watch. (2011). “Côte d’Ivoire: West African immigrants massacred.”Google Scholar
- Ignatieff, M. (2005). “The way we live now: the broken contract.” New York Times Magazine (September 25).Google Scholar
- IOM (International Organization for Migration). (2011a). “Humanitarian Return Assistance for Migrants / Third Country Nationals Affected by the Tohoku Pacific Earthquake” (March 22). http://www.iom.int.vn/joomla/files/IOMPublicAnnoucement-ENG.pdf. Accessed in November 2012.
- IOM. (2011b). “IOM Assists Information Dissemination to Disaster Affected Migrants in Japan” (March 25). http://www.iom.int/news/iom-and-partners-provide-assistance-colombians-returning-japan. Accessed in November 2012.
- IOM/UNHCR/UNIFEM/UNOHCHR/WB. (2005). “Joint Tsunami Migrant Assistance Mission to the Provinces of Krabi, Phangnga, Phuket and Ranong, Thailand.” Technical Assistance Report (February 16). http://reliefweb.int/sites/reliefweb.int/files/resources/5E66EF37A638324149256FEB00261379-iom-tha-16feb.pdf.
- Kahoku Shinpō. (2011). “Sonotoki nigeru, gaikokujin (Then, evacuate, foreigners).” (June 26).Google Scholar
- Kälin, W. (2008). The Guiding principles on internal displacement: annotations. Washington: The American Society of International Law and The Brookings Institution.Google Scholar
- Karen Human Rights Group. (2010). Abuse between borders: Vulnerability for Burmese workers deported from Thailand. (February 22). http://www.khrg.org/print/491.
- Kokawa, T. (1995). Kensho hanshin daishinsaito zainichi shakai (Inquiry of Hanshin earthquake and Zainichi community). In M. Sakai (Ed.), Kobe hatsu Hanshin daishinsai igo (pp. 93–114). Tokyo: Iwanami Shoten.Google Scholar
- Koser, K. (2012). “Responding to New Internal Displacement Challenges: The Displacement of Non-Citizens.” Brookings-LSE Project on Internal Displacement (December 20). http://www.brookings.edu/research/opinions/2012/12/20-displacement-noncitizens-koser. Accessed in June 2015.
- Koser, K. (2014). Protecting non-citizens in situations of conflict, violence and disaster. In S. F. Martin, S. Weerasinghe, & A. Taylor (Eds.) Humanitarian crises and migration (pp. 267--286). London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Koser, K., & Martin, S. (2011). The migration-displacement nexus: patterns, processes, and policies. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books.Google Scholar
- Kromm, C., & Sturgis S. (2008). Hurricane Katrina and the guiding principles on internal displacement: a global human rights perspective on a national disaster. Institute for Southern Studies.Google Scholar
- Kusachi, K. (1995). Shimin to borantia (Citizens and volunteers). In M. Sakai (ed.) Kobe hatsu Hanshin daishinsai igo (166–75).Google Scholar
- Li, W. (2013). Saigai to gaikokujinjoseitachi (Disasters and foreign women). GEMC Journal (10) (March), 78–80.Google Scholar
- March, J. G., & Olsen, J. P. (2015). “Elaborating the ‘New Institutionalism’.” Working Paper 11 (March). ARENA Centre for European Studies, University of Oslo.Google Scholar
- Martin, S. F., Weerasinghe, S., & Taylor, A. (Eds.). (2014). Humanitarian crises and migration. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- McDonnell, P. J. (1994). 2 Legisslators call for cutting off quake aid to illegal immigrants. LA Times (January 29).Google Scholar
- Mimaki, J., Takeuchi, Y., & Shaw, R. (2009). The role of community-based organization in the promotion of disaster preparedness at the community level: a case study of a coastal town in the Kochi Prefecture of the Shikoku region, Japan. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 13(4), 207–215.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- MOFA (Ministry of Foreign Affairs). 2011. “Gaimushō no daisanji hoseiyosan yōkyū anken.” http://www.mofa.go.jp/mofaj/gaiko/yosan/23/pdfs/h23_hosei3_gy.pdf.
- Morris, J. F., Miyagi International Association, and Sendai International Relations Association. (2015). Higashinihon daishinsai karano manabi (Lessons from the Eastern Japan Great Earthquake). Sendai. http://mia-miyagi.jp/archive.html. Accessed in August 2015.
- MSN Sankei News. (2011). “Chūgokuno kyūentai, hatsuno ukeire, shienmoushideha 69 kakoku chiikini (Accepting a rescue team from China for the first time, 69 nations and regions are offering help).”(March 13).Google Scholar
- Mugikura, T. (1999). Esunikku komyunitii no hisai jōkyō to kyūen katsudō (Damage on the ethnic communities and relief activities). In I. Nobuhiko (Ed.), Hanshin awaji daishinsai no shakaigaku (Sociology of the Hanshin-Awaji earthquake) (pp. 224–247). Tokyo: Shōwadō.Google Scholar
- Naikaku-fu (Office of the Cabinet). (2002). Hanshin awaji daishinsai: Sōkatsu kenshō chōsa shito. http://www.bousai.go.jp/kensho-hanshinawaji/chosa/sheet/142.pdf.
- National Immigration Law Center. (2005). “Hurricane disaster relief measures fall short or stall.” Immigrants’ Rights Update, 19(6).Google Scholar
- Ruhs, M., & Chang, H.-J. (2004). The ethnics of labor immigration policy. International Organization, 58(Winter), 69–102.Google Scholar
- Sato, N. (2012). Tohoku no gaikokujin hisaisha ha ima (Current conditions of foreign victims in Tohoku). Higashi-nihon Daishinsai Josei Shien Nettowaku. January 10. http://risetogetherjp.org/?p=924. Accessed in November 2013.
- Shenker, J. (2011). “Aircraft carrier left us to die, say migrants.” The Guardian (May 8).Google Scholar
- Sōmushō. 2006. Chiiki niokeru tabunkakyōsei suishin puran ni tuite (A plan to promote multicultural coexistence on the local level). Tokyo.Google Scholar
- Takezawa, Y. (1995). Gaikokujin kenmin shien no shikumi zukuri to chiiki no kokusaika no suishin (Institution-building to support foreign prefectural residents and support for internationalization of the locality). http://web.pref.hyogo.jp/wd33/documents/000039121.pdf.
- Takezawa, Y. (2006). “ ‘Gaikokujin’ toshiteno nikkeijin: ‘tabunka kyō’ wo mezasu shinsaigono kobeno nakade (Nikkeijin as ‘foreigners’: living in the post-quake Kobe that seeks multicultural coexistence).” In L. R. Hirabayashi, A. Kikumura-Yano, and J. A. Hirabayashi (eds.), Nikkeijin to Globalization (467-493). Kyoto: Jinbun Shoin.Google Scholar
- Taran, P. A. (2000). Human rights of migrants: challenges of the new decade. International Migration, 38(6), 150–168.Google Scholar
- Toyo Keizai. (2011). “Higashinihon daishinsai, zainichi firipinjin hisaishaga chokumensuru kunō, jitakuwo ushinai, douryotomo renrakuga torezu (The eastern Japan earthquake, difficulties experienced by Filipina victims in Japan, loss of houses, and isolation from compatriots).” (April 10).Google Scholar
- UNGA (United Nations General Assembly). (2005). Resolution A/60/L.1, “2005 World Summit Outcome,” §IV, ¶132. (September 15).Google Scholar
- UNISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction). (2007). Hyogo framework for action 2005–2015: building the resilience of nations and communities to disaster. Geneva: UNISDR.Google Scholar
- UNISDR (United Nations International Strategy for Disaster Risk Reduction). (2015). Sendai framework for disaster risk reduction 2015–30. Geneva: UNISDR.Google Scholar
- UNOCHA (United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs). (2004). Guiding principles on internal displacement. Geneva: UNOCHA.Google Scholar
- Wasem, R. E. (2005). Hurricane Katrina-Related Immigration Issues and Legislation. Congressional Research Service Report for Congress. September 19. http://www.au.af.mil/au/awc/awcgate/crs/rl33091.pdf.
- Wasem, R. E. (2009). Unauthorized aliens’ access to federal benefits: policy and issues. Washington, DC: Congressional Research Service Report for Congress.Google Scholar
- Wisner, B., Blaikie, P., Cannon, T., & Davis, I. (2004). At risk: natural hazards, people’s vulnerability and disasters (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Wong, J. (2009). Reconstructing the responsibility to protect in the wake of cyclones and separatism. Tulane Law Review, 84(2), 219–263.Google Scholar
- Yomiuri Shimbun. (2011a). “Hisaigaikokujinni kotobano kabe (A wall against disaster-affected foreigners).” (June 16).Google Scholar
- Yomiuri Shimbun. (2011b). “Gaikokujinzuma, jōhōkasoni chokumen (Foreign wives facing information isolation).” (July 4).Google Scholar