Advertisement

Why High School Students Aspire to Emigrate: Evidence from Greece

Article

Abstract

This paper investigates why Greek high school students aspire to emigrate, in relation to their educational and socio-economic background. Through fieldwork research conducted at three specialist high schools in Thessaloniki, three main conclusions have been drawn. Firstly, potential emigrants are ambitious, with high educational and professional expectations and a clear migration plan. Secondly, they are middle and upper middle class and excel at school—in socio-economic and educational terms, they therefore constitute the most dynamic Greek youths. Thirdly, in a period of recession on a European level, the alarming fact is that student emigration can undermine recovery for a country in crisis such as Greece. That is, middle-class shrinkage caused by the recession can be aggravated by emigration, which in turn might cost the loss of developmental human resources for Greece and a deepening of the recession. This can further stimulate migration, resulting in a vicious circle between crisis and emigration. Furthermore, if potential emigrants do not return because temporary emigration for studies becomes permanent migration for work, the economic crisis is worsened, and Greece’s prospects for development are further undermined.

Keywords

Skilled migration High school students Greece Economic crisis 

References

  1. Ajzen, I. (1991). The theory of planned behavior. Organizational Behaviour and Human Decision Processes, 50(2), 179–211.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Baláz, V., Williams, A. M., & Kollar, D. (2004). Temporary versus permanent youth brain drain: economic implications. International Migration, 42(4), 3–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Baruch, Y., Budhwar, P., & Khatri, N. (2007). Brain drain: inclination to stay abroad after studies. Journal of World Business, 42(1), 99–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Becker, S. O., Ichino, A., & Peri, G. (2004). How large is the “brain drain” from Italy? Giornale degli Economisti e Annali di Economia, 63(1), 1–32.Google Scholar
  5. Bhagwati, J., & Hamada, K. (1974). The brain drain, international integration of markets for professionals and unemployment. Journal of Development Economics, 1(1), 19–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bhagwati, J. N., & Partington, M. (1976). Taxing the brain drain: a proposal. Amsterdam: North Holland.Google Scholar
  7. Bhati, A., Lee, D., & Kairon, H. (2014). Underlining factors in deciding to pursue Australian higher education in Singapore. An international students’ perspective. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 116, 1064–1067.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bhorat, H., Meyer, J. B., & Mlatseni, C. (2002). Skilled labour migration from developing countries: study on South and Southern Africa. ILO International Migration Papers No 52. Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
  9. Brǎdǎţan, C., & Kulcsár, L. J. (2014). When the educated leave the East: Romanian and Hungarian skilled immigration to the USA. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 15(3), 509–524.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cairns, D., & Smyth, J. (2011). I wouldn’t mind moving actually: exploring student mobility in Northern Ireland. International Migration, 49(2), 135–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Constant, A., & D’ Agosto, E. (2008). Where Do the Brainy Italians Go?. IZA Discussion Papers No. 3325. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labour.Google Scholar
  12. D’ Arca, R. (1994). Social, cultural and material conditions of students from developing countries in Italy. International Migration Review, 28(2), 355–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Delicado, A. (2010). Going abroad to do science: mobility trends and motivations of Portuguese researchers. Science Studies, 23(2), 36–59.Google Scholar
  14. Docquier, F., & Rapaport, H. (2012). Globalization, brain drain, and development. Journal of Economic Literature, 50(3), 681–730.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Docquier, F., & Rapoport, H. (2009). Documenting the brain drain of «la crème de la crème»: Three case-studies on international migration at the upper tail of the education distribution. http://www.israelbraingain.org.il/Uploads/Attachments/6675/elite_sciences_migration_2009.pdf. Accessed 24.03.14.
  16. EL.STAT. (2012). Regional national accounts. Accessed 22.08.15.Google Scholar
  17. EL.STAT. (Hellenic Statistical Authority) (1968–1985). Statistical yearbook. Greece.Google Scholar
  18. EL.STAT. (2005–2014). Household budget surveys. Greece.Google Scholar
  19. Eliou, M. (1988). Mobility or migration? The case of greek students abroad. Higher Education in Europe, 13(3), 60–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Findlay, A. M. (2011). An assessment of supply and demand-side theorizations of international student mobility. International Migration, 49(2), 162–190.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gibson, J., & McKenzie, D. (2011). The microeconomic determinants of emigration and return migration of the best and brightest: evidence from the Pacific. Journal of Development Economics, 95(1), 18–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Gökbayrak, S. (2009). Skilled labour migration and positive externality: the case of Turkish engineers working abroad. International Migration, 50(S1), 132–150.Google Scholar
  23. Golub, B. (1996). Croatian scientists’ drain and its roots. International Migration, 34(4), 609–625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Güngör, N. D., & Tansel, A. (2012). Brain drain from Turkey: return intentions of skilled migrants. International Migration, 52(5), 208–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Guo, F., Hugo, G., & Tani, M. (2014). Introduction. International Migration, 52(2), 1–2.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hawthorne, L. (2014). Indian students and the evolution of the study-migration pathway in Australia. International Migration, 52(2), 3–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kahanec, M., & Zimmerman, K. F. (2010). High-skilled immigrants policy in Europe. IZA Discussion Papers No. 5399. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labour.Google Scholar
  28. Kangasniemi, M. L., Winters, L. A., & Commander, S. (2007). Is the medical brain drain beneficial? Evidence from overseas doctors in the UK. Social Science and Medicine, 65(5), 915–923.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Khoo, S.-E. (2014). Attracting and retaining globally mobile skilled migrants: policy challenges based on Australian research. International Migration, 52(2), 20–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Khoo, S.-E., Hugo, G., & McDonald, P. (2008). Which skilled migrants become permanent residents and why? International Migration Review, 42(1), 193–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. King, R., & Ruiz-Gelices, E. (2003). International student migration and the European ‘Year Abroad’: effects on European identity and subsequent migration behavior. Population, Space and Place, 9(3), 229–252.Google Scholar
  32. Labrianidis, L. (2011). Investing in leaving. Athens: Kritiki.Google Scholar
  33. Li, F. L. N., Findlay, A. M., Jowett, A. J., & Skeldon, R. (1996). Migrating to learn and learning to migrate: a study of the experiences and intentions of international students migrants. International Journal of Population Geography, 2, 51–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lianos, T. P., Asteriou, D., & Agiomirgiannakis, G. M. (2004). Foreign university graduates in the Greek labour market: employment, salaries and overeducation. International Journal of Finance and Economics, 9, 151–164.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mazzarol, T., & Soutar, G. N. (2002). “Push-pull” factors influencing international student destination choice. The International Journal of Educational Management, 16(2), 82–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Ministry of Education. (1977). Report to the by the working group concerned with Higher University Studies. Athens: The State Press.Google Scholar
  37. OECD. (2002). International mobility of the highly skilled. Paris: OECD Policy Brief.Google Scholar
  38. OECD. (2004). Internationalisation of higher education. Paris: OECD Policy Brief.Google Scholar
  39. OECD. (2013). World migration in figures. http://www.oecd.org/els/mig/World-Migration-in-Figures.pdf. Accessed 19.11.14.
  40. Parey, M., & Waldinger, F. (2008). Studying abroad and the effect on international labour market mobility: evidence from the introduction of ERASMUS. IZA Discussion Papers No. 3430. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labour.Google Scholar
  41. Pellegrino, A. (2001). Trends in Latin American skilled migration: “brain drain” or “brain exchange”? International Migration, 39(5), 111–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Saint-Paul, G. (2004). The brain drain: some evidence from European expatriates in the United States. IZA Discussion Papers No. 1310. Bonn: Institute for the Study of Labour.Google Scholar
  43. Salt, J. (1997). International movements of the highly skilled. OECD Social, Employment and Migration Working Papers No. 3. Paris: OECD.Google Scholar
  44. Scott, S. (2006). The social morphology of skilled migration: the case of the British middle class in Paris. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies, 32(7), 1105–1129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Straubhaar, T. (2000). International mobility of the highly skilled: brain gain, brain drain or brain exchange. HWWA Discussion Paper No. 88. Hamburg: Institute of International Economics.Google Scholar
  46. Tansel, A., & Güngör, N. D. (2003). “Brain drain” from Turkey: survey evidence of student non-return. Carrer Development International, 8(2), 52–69.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tsoulfidis, L. (2003). Economic history of Greece. Thessaloniki: University of Macedonia Press.Google Scholar
  48. UNESCO. (1987). Statistical Yearbook 1987. ParisGoogle Scholar
  49. Van Dalen, H. P., & Henkens, K. (2013). Explaining emigration intentions and behavior in the Netherlands, 2005–10. Population Studies, 67(2), 225–241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. West, A., Dimitropoulos, A., Hind, A., & Wilkes, J. (2000). Reasons for studying abroad: a survey of EU students studying in the UK. Paper presented at the European Conference on Educational Research. Edinburgh: 20–23 September.Google Scholar
  51. Xiang, B., & Shen, W. (2009). International student migration and social stratification in China. International Journal of Educational Development, 29, 513–522.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zweig, D. (1997). To return or not return? Politics vs. economics in China’s brain drain. Studies in Comparative International Development, 32(1), 92–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of EconomicsUniversity of MacedoniaThessalonikiGreece

Personalised recommendations