Advertisement

The Way Forward: African Francophone Immigrants Negotiate Their Multiple Minority Identities

  • Amal MadibboEmail author
Article

Abstract

This article explores multiple affiliations that first-generation Francophone sub-Saharan African immigrants in Alberta build with their communities of origin, the Francophone community in general, and the broader Canadian society. This article posits that dominant racial and ethnic ideologies generate feelings of exclusion from multiple communities. It also sheds light on major challenges faced by this population in the process of integration and illustrates how these barriers are related to racism and linguistic discrimination. At the same time, we observe that African Francophone immigrants reinterpret their social identities in inclusive ways that draw our attention to alternative means of approaching identities. In addition to immigrants’ identity strategies, some initiatives have been implemented within the mainstream of the Francophonie and the broader Alberta society that allow us to identify ways of avoiding identity exclusion and increasing equity.

Keywords

Francophone immigration Alberta Africa Racism and language discrimination Identity exclusion Equity 

References

  1. ACFA. (2009). Énoncé de vision. //www.acfa.ab.ca/vision.html. Accessed May 3 2014.
  2. Agrawal, S., & Lovell, K. (2010). High‐income Indian immigrants in Canada. South Asian Diaspora, 2(2), 143–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Belkhodja, C. (2012). D’ici et d’ailleurs. Regards croisés sur l’immigration francophone en Acadie du Nouveau-Brunswick. Moncton: Éditions Perce-Neige.Google Scholar
  4. Berns-McGown, R. (2013). “I am Canadian”, challenging stereotypes about young Somali Canadians. Montreal: Institute for Research on Public Policy No. 38.Google Scholar
  5. Cardinal, L., Gilbert, A., & Thériault, J. (2008). L’Espace francophone en milieu minoritaire. Montreal: Fides.Google Scholar
  6. Carlson-Berg, L. (2012). Parlons de la francophonie dans toutes ses couleurs: Un projet recherche-action en sciences humaines. Canadian Issues, 51–54Google Scholar
  7. Das Gupta, T., James, C., Maaka, R., Galabuzi, G.-E., & Anderson, C. (Eds.). (2007). Race and racialization, essential readings. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.Google Scholar
  8. Davies, P., Spencer, S., & Steele, C. (2005). Clearing the air: identity safety moderates the effects of stereotype threat on women’s leadership aspirations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 88(2), 276–287.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dei, G. (2009). Speaking race: salience, salience, and the politics of antiracist scholarship. In M. Wallis & E. Fleras (Eds.), The politics of race in Canada (pp. 230–238). Don Mills: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  10. Denis, W. (2008). From minority to citizenship: the challenge of diversity in the Fransaskois community. Canadian Themes, 42– 44Google Scholar
  11. Erel, U. (2010). Migrating cultural capital: Bourdieu in migration studies. Sociology, 44(4), 642–660.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gallant, N. (2011). Les communautés francophones en milieu minoritaire et les immigrants: entre ouverture et inclusion. Revue du Nouvel Ontario, 35(36), 69–105.Google Scholar
  13. Harris-Lacewell, M. (2004). Barbershops, bible, and BET: everyday talk and black political thought. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Hartigan, J. (2010). Race in the 21st century, ethnographic approaches. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  15. Huot, S., Dodson, B., & Laliberte Rudman, D. (2014). Negotiating belonging following migration: exploring the relationship between place and identity in Francophone minority communities. The Canadian Geographer, 58(3), 329–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Ibrahim, A. (2010). Hey, whassup homeoby? In Becoming Black: hip-hop language and culture, race performativity, and the politics of identity in high school. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  17. Isajiw, W. (1993). Definition and dimensions of ethnicity: a theoretical framework. In: Challenges of measuring an ethnic world. Washington: U.S. Government Printing Office, pp.407–427.Google Scholar
  18. Johnson, C. (2008). The end of the black American narrative. American Scholar, 77(30), 32–41.Google Scholar
  19. Labelle, M. (2011). Racisme et antiracisme au Québec. Québec: Presses de l’Université du Québec.Google Scholar
  20. Madison, S. (2012). Critical ethnography: method, ethics and performance. Los Angeles, London, Delhi, Singapore, Washington, DC: Sage.Google Scholar
  21. Markus, H. (2010). Who am I? Race, ethnicity, and identity. In H. Markus & P. Moya (Eds.), Doing race, 21 essays for the 21st century (pp. 359–389). New York: Norton.Google Scholar
  22. McAndrew, M. (2010). Les majorités fragiles de l’éducation: Belgique, Catalogne, Irlande du Nord, Québec. Montréal: Les Presses de l’Université de Montréal.Google Scholar
  23. Moke-Ngala, V. (2006). L’intégration des jeunes des familles immigrantes francophones d’origine africaine d la vie scolaire dans les écoles secondaires francophones dans un milieu urbain en Alberta. Master’s Thesis, University of Alberta, EdmontonGoogle Scholar
  24. Morrison, T. (1992). Playing in the dark: whiteness and the literary imagination. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Nabors, N. (2012). The social psychology of stigma. In R. Nettles & R. Balter (Eds.), Multiple minority identities (pp. 13–34). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  26. Nederveen- Pieterse, J. (2007). Ethnicities and global multicultural. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  27. Ngo, H. (2012). Cultural competence in Alberta schools: perceptions of ESL families in four major school boards. TESL Canada Journal, 29(6), 204–223.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Olaoye, E. (2012). Increasing resilience in multiple minority clients using positive psychology. In R. Nettles & R. Balter (Eds.), Multiple minority identities (pp. 141–162). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  29. Omi, M., & Winant, H. (2014). Racial formation in the United States. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  30. Palmer, H., & Palmer, T. (1985). The black experience in Alberta. In H. Palmer & T. Palmer (Eds.), Peoples of Alberta: portraits of cultural diversity (pp. 365–393). Saskatoon: Western Producer Prairie Books.Google Scholar
  31. Satzewich, V., & Liodakis, N. (2013). “Race” and ethnicity in Canada, a critical introduction. Don Mills: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  32. SLMC. (n.d.) Northwest Territories Act (1877). http://www.slmc.uottawa.ca/?q=leg_northwest_territories_act.
  33. Statistics Canada. (2011). Census 2011. http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/index-eng.cfm.
  34. Tettey, W., & Puplampu, K. (Eds.). (2005). The African diaspora in Canada: negotiating identity and belonging. Calgary: University of Calgary Press.Google Scholar
  35. Van den Hoonaard, D. (2011). Qualitative research in action, a Canadian primer. Don Mills: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  36. Walters, D., Phythian, K., & Anisef, P. (2006). The ethnic identity of immigrants in Canada. Toronto: CERIS Working Papers No. 38.Google Scholar
  37. Williams, D., & Williams-Morris, R. (2000). Racism and mental health: the African American experience. Ethnicity & Health, 4(3–4), 243–268.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of CalgaryCalgaryCanada

Personalised recommendations