Migration Intentions of Nursing Students in Ghana: Implications for Human Resource Development in the Health Sector
This study examined the influence of socio-economic and demographic variables on the migration intentions of nursing students. It was a cross-sectional descriptive study. Data was obtained through the administration of structured questionnaire to students in three nursing schools. The study was conducted within the context of the neoclassical economic and network theories of migration. Using logistic regression analysis, the findings of the study indicate that salary differentials remain important determinants of nurse migration. Established networks in destination countries also facilitate nurse migration, even though nurses would still take the risk of migrating in the absence of networks abroad. Career progression for nurses and securing better education for children are also prominent determinants of nurse migration. It was also found that being posted to work in a rural area may even serve as a catalyst to migrate abroad, as this was the strongest predictor of intention to migrate. The findings of this study have important implication for human resource development among nurses in Ghana.
KeywordsMigration intention Student nurse Socio-economic Neoclassical economic theory Network approaches Globalization Ghana
- Anarfi, J., Quartey, P., & Agyei, J. (2010). Key determinants of migration among health professionals in Ghana. Development Research Centre on Migration, Globalisation and Poverty. http://www.migrationdrc.org/…/Quartey_et_al_Health_workers.pdf.
- Antwi, J., & Phillips, D. (2012). Wages and health worker retention in Ghana: evidence from public sector wage reforms. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Antwi+and+Phillips&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5# (accessed 8 March 2014).
- Awases, M., Gbary, A., Nyoni, J., & Chatora, R. (2004). Migration of health professionals in six countries: a synthesis report. World Health Organ, 65, 38–42.Google Scholar
- Ayetso, B. (2010). Ghanaian student nurses and their intention to migrate; means of managing the migration of nursing professionals from the country. http://hdl.handle.net/123456789/1782.
- Bach, S. (2003). International migration of health workers: labour and social issues. Geneva: International Labour Office.Google Scholar
- Baumann, A., Blythe, J., Kolotylo, C., & Underwood, J. (2004). Immigration and emigration trends: a Canadian perspective. Nursing Sector Study Corporation.Google Scholar
- Buchan, J., & Calman, L. (2004). The global shortage of registered nurses: an overview of issues and actions. International Council of Nurses. http://www.icn.ch/global/shortage.pdf.
- Buchan, J., Parkin, T., Sochalski, J., & World Health Organization. (2003). International nurse mobility: trends and policy implications/by James Buchan, Tina Parkin, Julie Sochalski.Google Scholar
- Buchan, J., Kingma, M., & Lorenzo, F. M. E. (2005). International migration of nurses: trends and policy implications. International Council of Nurses.Google Scholar
- Castles, S., & Miller, M. (2003). The age of migration (3rd ed.). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
- Clemens, M., & Pettersson, G. (2007). New data on African health professionals abroad, working paper no. 95. Washington DC: Center for Global Development.Google Scholar
- Dovlo, D. (2003, September). The brain drain and retention of health professionals in Africa. In Report to Regional Training Conference on Improving Tertiary Education in Sub-Saharan Africa: Things That Work.Google Scholar
- Dovlo, D. (2006). Ghanaian health workers on the causes and consequences of migration. In K. TamasandJ Palme (Ed.), Globalizing migration regimes: new challenges to transnational cooperation (pp. 118–127). Aldershot: Ashgate Publishing Ltd.Google Scholar
- Dovlo, D., & Martineau, T. (2004). A review of the migration of Africa’s health professionals. A Joint Learning Initiative on Human Resources for Health, Africa Working Group Pape.Google Scholar
- Ghana Ministry of Health (2007). Human resource policies and strategies for the health sector, 2007-2011.Google Scholar
- Hirst, P., & Grahame, T. (1996). Globalization in question. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
- Howell, C. (2005). Trade unions and the state: the construction of industrial relations institutions in Britain, 1890-2000. Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
- International Organization for Migration (2009). Migration and human resources for health: from awareness to action http://www.iom.int/jahia/webdav/site/myjahiasite/shared/shared/mainsite/microsites/IDM/workshops/Migration_and_HR_23240306/MHCW_final_report.pdf accessed 7 March 2014.
- Kingma, M. (2006). Nurses on the move: migration and the global health care economy.Google Scholar
- Lievens, T., Serneels, P., Garabino, S., Quartey, P., Appiah, E., Herbst, C.H., et al. (2011). Creating Incentives to Work in Ghana: Results from a Qualitative Health Worker Study. Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Massey, D., Alarcon, R., Durand, J., & Gonzalez, H. (1987). Return to aztlan. The Social Process of International Migration from Western Mexico. Berkeley, University of California Press.Google Scholar
- Massey, D. S., Arango, J., Hugo, G., Kouaouci, A., Pellegrino, A. & Taylor, J. e. (1998). Worlds in motion: understanding international migration at the end of the millennium. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?q=Worlds+in+Motion%3A+Understanding+International+Migration+at+the+End+of+the+Millennium.&btnG=&hl=en&as_sdt=0%2C5# (accessed 8 March 2014).
- Mej’ia, A., Pizurki, H., & Royston, E. (1979). Physician and nurse migration: analysis and policy implications, report on a WHO study/by Alfonso Mej’ia, Helena Pizurki, Erica Royston.Google Scholar
- Mensah, K., Mackintosh, M., & Henry, L. (2005). The ‘skills drain’ of health professionals from the developing world: a framework for policy formulation. http://oro.open.ac.uk/8532/1/Mensah_et_al._2005__Medact.pdf (accessed 8 March 2014).
- Munjanja, O., Kibuka, S., & Dovlo, D. (2005). The nursing workforce in sub-Saharan Africa. International Council of Nurses. http://scholar.google.com/scholar?hl=en&q=The+nursing+workforce+in+sub-Saharan+Africa.&btnG=&as_sdt=1%2C5&as_sdtp=# (accessed 8 March 2014).
- Nguyen, L., Ropers, S., Nderitu, E., Zuyderduin, A., Luboga, S., & Hagopian, A. (2008). Intent to migrate among nursing students in Uganda: measures of the brain drain in the next generation of health professionals. Human Resources for Health, 6(5), 1–11.Google Scholar
- Nygren-Krug, H. (2004). International migration, health and human rights. World Health Organization. http://www.cabdirect.org/abstracts/20043141504.html (accessed 8 March 2014).
- Padarath, A., Chamberlain, C., McCoy, D., Ntuli, A., Rowson, M., & Loewenson, R. (2003). Health personnel in Southern Africa: confronting maldistribution and brain drain. Durban: Health Systems Trust.Google Scholar
- Pillinger, J. (2011). Public Services International. International Migration and Women Health and Social Care Workers Programme. http://www.world-psi.org/sites/default/files/documents/research/ghana.pdf.
- Stilwell, B., Diallo, K., Zurn, P., Dal Poz, M. R., Adams, O., & Buchan, J. (2003). Developing evidence-based ethical policies on the migration of health workers: conceptual and practical challenges. Human Resources for health, 1(1), 8.Google Scholar
- Todaro, M. (1969). A model of labour migration and urban unemployment in less developed countries. The American Economic Review, 59, 138–149.Google Scholar
- Võrk, A., Kallaste, E., & Priinits, M. (2004). Migration intentions of health care professionals: the case of Estonia. New patterns of labour migration in Central and Eastern Europe. Cluj Napoca, Romania: Public Polisy Centre.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (2006). The world health report: 2006: working together for health.Google Scholar