Advertisement

Working In a Regulated Occupation in Canada: An Immigrant–Native Born Comparison

  • Magali GirardEmail author
  • Michael Smith
Article
  • 1k Downloads

Abstract

The number of immigrants working in regulated and unregulated occupations in Canada is unknown. A major contribution of this study is that we use the 2006 Census of Canada to classify occupations, across provinces, into regulated and unregulated categories and then to examine the covariates of membership in a regulated occupation. In aggregate, immigrants are slightly less likely to work in a regulated occupation. Immigrants educated in Asia, Latin America, and the Caribbean prove to be much less likely to secure access to a regulated occupation than either the native born or other immigrants.

Keywords

Immigration Regulated occupations Place of education Foreign credentials Canada 

References

  1. Adams, T. L. (2007). Professional regulation in Canada: past and present. Canadian Issues, Spring, 14–16. Retrieved from http://www.unitar.org/ny/sites/unitar.org.ny/files/foreign%20credentials.pdf.
  2. Alboim, N., Finnie, R., & Meng, R. (2005). The discounting of immigrants’ skills in Canada: Evidence and policy recommendations. IRPP Choices, 11(2). Retrieved from http://www.irpp.org/fasttrak/index.htm.
  3. Anisef, P., Sweet, R., & Frempong, G. (2003). Labour market outcomes of immigrant and racial minority university graduates in Canada (Working paper No. 23). Toronto: Centre of Excellence for Research on Immigration and Settlement. Retrieved from http://ceris.metropolis.net/frameset_e.html.
  4. Aydemir, A. (2003). Effects of business cycles on the labour market assimilation of immigrants. Cat. No. 11F0019MIE. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper No. 203. Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Retrieved from http://129.3.20.41/eps/lab/papers/0309/0309010.pdf.
  5. Boudarbat, B., & Boulet, M. (2007). Détérioration des salaires des nouveaux immigrants au Québec par rapport à l’Ontario et à la Colombie-Britannique. IRPP Choices, 13(7). Retrieved from http://www.irpp.org/fasttrak/index.htm.
  6. Boyd, M., & Schellenberg, G. (2007). Re-accreditation and occupations of immigrant doctors and engineers. Canadian Social Trends, Winter No. 84, 2–10. Retrieved from http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection-R/Statcan/11-008-XIE/11-008-XIE.html.
  7. Boyd, M., & Thomas, D. (2002). Skilled immigrant labour: Country of origin and the occupational locations of male engineers. Canadian Studies in Population, 29(1), 71–99. Retrieved from http://www.canpopsoc.org/journal/CSPv29n1p71.pdf.
  8. Canadian Information Centre for International Credentials. (2010). Assessment and recognition of credentials for the purpose of employment in Canada [Fact Sheet No. 2]. Retrieved from http://www.cicic.ca/413/Assessment_of_credentials_for_employment_in_Canada_.canada.
  9. Canadian Labour and Business Centre. (2001). Assessing and recognizing foreign credentials in Canada: Employers’ views. Prepared for Citizenship and Immigration Canada and Human Resources Development Canada. Ottawa. Retrieved http://www.clbc.ca/files/Reports/credentialspaper_e.pdf.
  10. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2008). Facts and figures 2007—Immigration overview: permanent and temporary residents. Ottawa: Research and Evaluation Branch.Google Scholar
  11. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2010). Facts and figures 2009—Immigration overview: permanent and temporary residents. Retrieved from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/resources/statistics/facts2009/permanent/01.asp.
  12. Citizenship and Immigration Canada. (2011) Immigrating to Canada. Retrieved from http://www.cic.gc.ca/english/immigrate/index.asp.
  13. Conseil Interprofessionnel du Québec. (2006). Survey of good practices for the recognition of equivalence of credentials and training obtained outside Québec. Retrieved from http://www.micc.gouv.qc.ca/publications/fr/dossiers/documentRecension-eng.pdf.
  14. Cranford, C., Vosko, L., & Zukewich, N. (2003). Precarious employment in the Canadian labour market: a statistical portrait. Just Labour, 3, 6–22. Retrieved from http://www.justlabour.yorku.ca/volume3/pdfs/cranfordetal.pdf.
  15. Ferrer, A. M., & Riddell, W. C. (2008). Education, credentials, and immigrant earnings. Canadian Journal of Economics, 41(1), 186–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Galarneau, D., & Morissette, R. (2008). Immigrants’ education and required job skills (no. 75-001-X). Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  17. Girard, E. R., & Bauder, H. (2007). Assimilation and exclusion of foreign trained engineers in Canada: inside a professional regulatory organization. Antipode, 39(1), 35–53. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-8330.2007.00505.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Girard, M., Smith, M. R., & Renaud, J. (2008). Intégration économique des nouveaux immigrants: Adéquation entre l’emploi occupé avant l’arrivée au Quebec et les emplois occupés depuis l’immigration. The Canadian Journal of Sociology, 33(4), 791–814.Google Scholar
  19. Government of Canada. Working in Canada tool. Retrieved from http://www.workingincanada.gc.ca.
  20. Hawthorne, L. (2006). Labour market outcomes for migrant professionals: Canada and Australia compared. Ottawa: Presented to Human Resources and Skills Development Canada.Google Scholar
  21. Li, P. S. (2000). Earning disparities between immigrants and native-born Canadians. The Canadian Review of Sociology and Anthropology, 37(3), 289–311.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Li, P. S. (2001). The market worth of immigrants’ educational credentials. Canadian Public Policy, 27(1), 23–38.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Noreau, N. (2000). Longitudinal aspect of involuntary part-time employment (Cat. No. 75F0002MIE – 00003. Income research paper series). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75f0002m/75f0002m2000003-eng.pdf.
  24. Palameta, B. (2004). Low income among immigrants and visible minorities. Perspectives on Labour and Income, 5(4), 12–17. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/75-001-x2004104-eng.html.
  25. Picot, G. (2004). The deteriorating economic welfare of immigrants and possible causes (Cat. No. 11F0019MIE. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series No. 222). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Retrieved from http://dsp-psd.pwgsc.gc.ca/Collection/Statcan/11F0019MIE/11F0019MIE2004222.pdf.
  26. Picot, G., & Hou, F. (2009). The effect of immigrant selection and the IT bust on the entry earnings of immigrants (Working Paper No. 29). Canadian Labour Market and Skills Researcher Network. Retrieved from http://www.clsrn.econ.ubc.ca/workingpapers/CLSRN%20Working%20Paper%20no.%2029%20%20Picott%20and%20Hou.pdf.
  27. Picot, G., & Sweetman, A. (2005). The deteriorating economic welfare of immigrants and possible causes: Update 2005 (Cat. No. 11F0019MIE. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series No. 262). Ottawa: Statistics Canada. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11f0019m/11f0019m2005262-eng.pdf.
  28. Reich, M., Gordon, D. M., & Edwards, R. C. (1973). Dual labor markets: a theory of labor market segmentation. American Economic Review, 63(2), 359–365.Google Scholar
  29. Reitz, J. G. (2001). Immigrant skill utilization in the Canadian labour market: implications of human capital research. Journal of International Migration and Integration, 2(3), 347–378.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Reitz, J. G. (2005). Tapping immigrants’ skills: new directions for Canadian immigration policy in the knowledge economy. IRPP Choices, 11(1). Retrieved from http://www.irpp.org/fasttrak/index.htm.
  31. Relations internationales Québec. (2010). Québec-France understanding on the mutual recognition of professional qualifications. Retrieved from http://www.mri.gouv.qc.ca/en/grands_dossiers/qualifications_professionnelles/index.asp
  32. Renaud, J., & Cayn, T. (2006). Un emploi correspondant à ses compétences? Les travailleurs sélectionnés et l’accès à un emploi qualifié au Québec. Montréal: Ministère de l’Immigration et des Communautés culturelles.Google Scholar
  33. Statistics Canada. (2003). Longitudinal survey of immigrants to Canada: Process, progress and prospects (Cat. No. 89-611-XIE). Ottawa: Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89-611-x/89-611-x2003001-eng.pdf.
  34. Statistics Canada. (2004). Women in Canada: Work chapter. Updates 2003 (Cat. No. 89F0133XIE). Ottawa: Housing, Family and Social Statistics Division. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/89f0133x/89f0133x2003000-eng.pdf.
  35. Statistics Canada. (2007). Study: Canada's immigrant labour market. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/daily-quotidien/070910/dq070910a-eng.htm.
  36. Statistics Canada. (2010). 2006 Census dictionary. Cat. No. 92-566-X. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/ref/dict/pdf/92-566-eng.pdf.
  37. Statistics Canada (2011). Place of Birth (33), Age at Immigration (6), Period of Immigration (9) and Sex (3) for the Immigrant Population of Canada, Provinces and Territories, 2006 Census—20% Sample Data. Retrieved from http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2006/dp-pd/tbt/Rp-eng.cfm?LANG=E&APATH=3&DETAIL=0&DIM=0&FL=A&FREE=0&GC=0&GID=0&GK=0&GRP=1&PID=89451&PRID=0&PTYPE=88971,97154&S=0&SHOWALL=0&SUB=726&Temporal=2006&THEME=72&VID=0&VNAMEE=&VNAMEF=.
  38. Sweetman, A. (2004). Immigrant source country education quality and Canadian labour market outcomes. (Cat. No. 11F0019MIE. Analytical Studies Branch Research Paper Series No. 234). Ottawa: Statistics Canada.Google Scholar
  39. Watt, D., & Bloom, M. (2001). Exploring the learning recognition gap in Canada. Ottawa: Conference Board of Canada. Retrieved from http://www.conferenceboard.ca/Libraries/EDUC_PUBLIC/RecogLearn.sflb.
  40. Zietsma, D. (2010). Immigrants working in regulated occupations. Perspectives, 13–28. Retrieved from http://www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/75-001-x/2010102/pdf/11121-eng.pdf.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Sociology and Institute for Research on Labor and EmploymentUniversity of CaliforniaBerkeleyUSA
  2. 2.Department of SociologyMcGill UniversityMontrealCanada

Personalised recommendations