The Regulation of Street Foods: Experiences of Front-Line Regulators in Ghana
There has been a lot of research on the relationship between regulators and street vendors, often portraying regulators as bullies of vulnerable vendors. However, there is little documentation on urban regulators and their challenges as they implement their mandates. This paper investigates the challenges and negotiating strategies of regulators of street-vended foods in Ghana and analyses the implication for their relationship with street food vendors. The paper reveals that regulators operate in a context of limited resources, leading to a general feeling of neglect. In coping, regulators adopt strategies that encourage harassment of vendors and increase tensions between vendors and regulators. Thus, this study establishes relations between the challenges and negotiating strategies of regulators and the poor relations that exist between regulators and vendors. This paper argues that motivating and addressing the needs of regulators can serve as an important basis for eliminating harassment and for improving the relationships between regulators and street vendors.
KeywordsRegulation Street foods Coping strategies Harassment
- Adarkwa, K. K. (2011). The role of Kumasi in national development-Kumasi as a central place. In K. K. Adarkwa (Ed.), Future of the tree: towards growth and development in Kumasi (pp. 14–34). Kumasi: University Printing Press.Google Scholar
- Alfers, L. (2011). A case study from Ghana of good practice in developing OHS for informal workers. In: ICOH International Conference on Small and Medium-Scale Enterprises Accra, Ghana,. Accra, pp. 1–11. Available at: Retrieved from: http://wiego.org/resources/case-study-ghana-good-practice-developing-ohs-informal-workers 17th March 2014.
- Alfers, L., & Abban, R. (2011). Occupational health & safety for indigenous caterers in Accra, Ghana. Cambridge: WIEGO.Google Scholar
- Amoah, D. K., Marfo, E. K., Wallace, P. A. & Osei, F. (2004). A case study of the street food situation in Kumasi: socio-economic aspects and sanitary practices. Agricultural and Food Science Journal of Ghana, 3, 203–216.Google Scholar
- Anjaria, S. A. (2006). Street hawkers and public space in Mumbai. Economic and Political Weekly, 41(21), 2140–2146.Google Scholar
- Ankomah, A. (1996). Premarital relationships and livelihoods in Ghana. Gender and Development, 4(3), 39–47 Available at: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12347714 [Accessed 9 Oct 2014].
- Asiedu, A. B., & Agyei-Mensah, S. (2008). Traders on the run: activities of street vendors in the Accra Metropolitan Area, Ghana. Norsk Geografisk Tidsskrift-Norwegian Journal of Geography, 62(3), 191–202 Available at: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00291950802335806 [Accessed March 12, 2013].
- Bass, L. E. (2000). Enlarging the street and negotiating the curb: public space at the edge of an African market. International Journal of Sociology and Social Policy, 20(1), 76–97.Google Scholar
- Bessy, C. (2009). Food safety policies and regulatory frameworks., pp. 1–19. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docs/up/easypol/785/food_safety_policies_and_regulatory_frameworks_slides_078en.pdf.
- Bonner, C. & Carré, F. (2013). Global networking: informal workers build solidarity, power and representation through networks and alliances, Manchester. Available at: http://wiego.org/sites/wiego.org/files/publications/files/Bonner-Global-Networking-Informal-Workers-WIEGO-WP31.pdf.
- Chalofsky, N., & Krishna, V. (2009). Meaningfulness, commitment, and engagement: the intersection of a deeper level of intrinsic motivation. Advances in Developing Human Resources, 11(2), 189–203 Available at: http://adh.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/1523422309333147 [Accessed October 6, 2014].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Chen, M. (2004). Rethinking the informal economy: linkages with the formal economy and the formal regulatory environment. In: Unlocking human potential: linking the informal and formal sectors, 17–18 September 2004. Helsinki, Finland: WIEGO. Available at: http://wiego.org/sites/wiego.org/files/publications/files/Chen-Rethinking-Informal_WIDER_paper.pdf.
- Donovan, M. G.(2008). Informal cities and the contestation of public space: the case of Bogota’s street vendors, 1988–2003. Urban Studies, 45(1), 29–51. Available at: http://usj.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/0042098007085100 [Accessed 5 March 2013].
- Dzorgbo, D. S. (2013). Sociological theory: classical ideas and their application in the African context. Accra: Woeli Publishing Services.Google Scholar
- FAO & WHO (2003). Assuring food safety and quality: guidelines for strengthening national food control systems. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper, 76. Available at: ftp://ftp.fao.org/docrep/fao/006/y8705e/y8705e00.pdf. [Accessed 18 January 2013].
- Feglo, P., & Sakyi, K. (2012). Bacterial contamination of street vending food in Kumasi, Ghana. Journal of Medical and Biomedical Sciences, 1(1), 1–8.Google Scholar
- Fellows, P. & Hilmi, M. (2012). Selling street and snack foods, Rome. Available at: http://www.fao.org/docrep/015/i2474e/i2474e00.pdf.
- French, J. P. R., & Raven, B. H. (1959). The basis of social power. In D. Cartwright (Ed.), Studies in social power (pp. 150–167). Institute of Social Research: Ann Arbor.Google Scholar
- Ghana Statistical Service, (2012). 2010 population and housing census: summary report of final results, Accra. Google Scholar
- International Labour Office, (2002). Women and men in the informal economy : a statistical picture, Geneva. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/dyn/infoecon/docs/441/F596332090/women and men stat picture.pdf.
- Johnson, P.-N.T. & Yawson, R.M. (2000). Enhancing the food security of the peri-urban and urban poor through improvements to the quality, safety, and economics of street-vended foods. In: P. T. Johnson & R. M. Yawson, eds. Report on workshop for stakeholders, policy makers and regulators of street-food vending in Accra,Ghana. 25–26 September, 2000. Accra: DFID/NRI/FRI/ Project R No 7493. Available at: http://mpra.ub.uni-muenchen.de/33240/ [Accessed 21 Feb 2013].
- Kannabiran, G. & Petersen, M.G. (2010). Politics at the interface: a Foucauldian power analysis. In: Proceedings of the 6th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Extending Boundaries. New York, pp. 695–698.Google Scholar
- KPMG, S.S.B. (2008). Kumasi, Ghana: potential opportunities for investors, Available at: viewed 22 May 2014 at: http://www.kpmg.com/Global/en/IssuesAndInsights/ArticlesPublications/Lists/Expired/Report-Kumasi-Ghana-potential-opportunities.pdf.
- Kumar, R. (2012). The regularization of street vending in Bhubaneshwar, India: a policy model. WIEGO Policy Brief (Urban Policies) No. 7. June 2012, Cambridge, WIEGO. Available at: http://www.inclusivecities.org/wp-content/uploads/2012/10/Kumar_WIEGO_PB7.pdf [Accessed 10 Oct 2014].
- Kusakabe, K. (2006). Policy issues on street vending: an overview of studies in Thailand, Cambodia and Mongolia. Informal economy, poverty and employment. Bangkok, International Labour Office. Available at: http://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/---asia/---ro-bangkok/documents/publication/wcms_bk_pb_119_en.pdf. [Accessed 10 Oct 2014].
- Lipsky, M. (1980). Street-level bureaucracy: the dilemmas of the individual in public services. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
- Nathan, M. L., & Mitroff, I. I. (1991). The use of negotiated order theory as a tool for the analysis and development of an interorganizational field. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 27(2), 163–180 Available at: http://jab.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/0021886391272002 [Accessed April 2, 2013].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nicoló, G.F. & Bendech, M.A. (2012). Street food vending in West African cities: potential and challenges. Available at: http://www.fao.org/fsnforum/sites/default/files/resources/STREET FOOD VENDING IN WEST AFRICAN COUNTRIESFinalVersion.pdf. [Accessed 15 Feb 2013].
- Nukunya, G. K. (2003). Tradition and change in Ghana: an introduction to sociology 2nd ed. Accra: Ghana Universities Press.Google Scholar
- Popke, J. E., & Ballard, R. (2004). Dislocating modernity: identity, space and representations of street trade in Durban, South Africa. Geoforum, 35(1), 99–110 Available at: http://linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0016718503000022 [Accessed 6 April 2013].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ritchie, J., & Spencer, L. (2002). Qualitative data analysis for applied policy research. In A. M. Huberman & M. B. Miles (Eds.), The qualitative researcher ’ s companion. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications, Inc..Google Scholar
- Ritzer, G. (2008). Modern sociological theory seventh. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Schaefer, R. T. (2004). Sociology: a brief introduction fifth edit. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
- Schindler, S. (2013). Producing and contesting the formal/informal divide: regulating street hawking in Delhi, India. Urban Studies, 51(12), 2596–2612 Available at: http://usj.sagepub.com/cgi/doi/10.1177/0042098013510566 [Accessed 19 Nov 2014].CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Simpson, R. (2005). Men in non-traditional occupations: career entry, career orientation and experience of role strain. Gender, Work and Organization, 12(4), 363–380.Google Scholar
- Solomon-Ayeh, E.B., Sylvana, R. & Decardi-Nelson, I. (2011). Street vending and the use of urban public space in Kumasi, Ghana. The Ghana Surveyor, 4(1), 20–31.Google Scholar