Experimental determination of acetamiprid pesticide residue in three different types of pistachio by ion mobility spectrometry and using QuEChERS method in the different temperatures and in the presence of ammonia as dopant gas
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In this project, Ion Mobility Spectrometer (IMS) instrument in the positive mode and with corona ionization source was utilized to determine the residue of acetamiprid pesticide in three different types of pistachio (Akbari, Fandoghi and Kalachuchi). The QuEChERS method, notable because of easy and quick preparation of sample and using lower amounts of organic solvents with harmful environmental effects and high costs, was used in this study. Many experiments were performed in the different temperatures in order to obtain optimum temperature for cell and injection. Ammonia and acetone were considered as dopant substances and it turned out that the ammonia gas, contrary to acetone, increased significantly the signal intensity and sensitivity and avoided the overlap of desired peaks. The LOD of device for acetamiprid pesticide was estimated to be 0.5 μg g−1 and the LOQ of instrument was obtained as 1.66 μg g−1. The calibration curve was in the dynamic range between 0.5–11.5 μg g−1 and the Correlation Coefficient was 0.998. Also, the ion mobility and the reduced ion mobility were calculated for acetamiprid ion. After analysis of five samples with IMS instrument, the acetamiprid residue was determined and it turned out that it was under allowed limit in all three types of pistachio. In addition, the amount of acetamiprid residue was higher for Akbari type relative to Fandoghi and Kalachuchi ones. The reason for this observation is the higher vulnerability of Akbari trees to insects and pests and this in turn causes more pesticide to be consumed.
KeywordsIon mobility spectrometry Acetamiprid pesticide Pistachio QuEChERS method Temperature Dopant
The authors are thankful to Dr. Azra Abedi for useful discussions about this work.
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