Skip to main content

Advertisement

Log in

Protein Consumption: Inadequacy in Amount, Food Sources, and Mealtime Distribution in Community-Dwelling Older Adults

  • Published:
Ageing International Aims and scope Submit manuscript

Abstract

Adequate protein consumption in amount, food sources, and meals is important to maintain muscle mass and reduce the risk of sarcopenia in older adults. This study aimed to assess protein intake in terms of the amount consumed, food sources, and meals in a sample of 295 community-dwelling older adults in a city in southeastern Brazil. Protein intake was assessed in grams/day and the amount consumed per meal and food sources were calculated using the total value and relative contribution. Adequate protein consumption was considered 0.66 g/kg/day (Estimated Average Requirement-EAR) and amount per meal 25 g, as recommended by the PROT-AGE Study Group. Descriptive analysis was based on central trend and dispersion measures. Average protein intake was 67 g and 1.05 g/kg, with an 8.5% prevalence of inadequacy. The meal that provided the largest protein contribution was lunch and 98% of the group showed insufficient intake at breakfast. Concerning food sources, the greatest contribution came from the meat group (47.3%). The results indicated that median intake was at the lower end of the range recommended by PROT-AGE, with about 50% of subjects consuming less than 1.0 g/kg/day. Protein distribution among meals showed a high prevalence of adequate consumption, breakfast being the most critical meal. Strategies to optimize protein intake should consider the amount, quality, and distribution of protein consumed at meals that form part of a balanced healthy diet, in addition to dietary techniques and supplementation, to achieve maximum protein synthesis capacity.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this article

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.

Instant access to the full article PDF.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Bauer, J., Biolo, G., Cederholm, T., Cesari, M., Cruz-Jentoft, M. J. E., et al. (2013). Evidence-based recommendation for optimal dietary protein intake in older people: A position paper from the PROT-AGE Study Group. Journal of the American Medical Directors Association, 14(8), 542–559. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jamda.2013.05

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Berner, L. A., Becker, G., Wise, M., & Doi, J. (2013). Characterization of dietary protein among older adults in the United States: Amount, animal sources, and meal patterns. Journal of the Academic of Nutrition and Dietetics, 113(6), 809–815. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jand.2013.01.014

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Block, G., Hartman, A. M., Dresser, C. M., Carroll, M. D., Gannon, J., & Gardner, L. (1986). A data-based approach to diet questionnaire design and testing. American Journal of Epidemiology, 124(3), 453–469.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Coelho-Junior, H. J., Rodrigues, B., Uchida, M., & Marzetti, E. (2018). Low protein intake is associated with frailty in older adults: A systematic review and meta-analysis of observational studies. Nutrients, 10(9), 1334. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10091334

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • de Carvalho, A. M., César, C. L., Fisberg, R. M., & Marchioni, D. M. (2014). Meat consumption in São Paulo-Brazil: Trend in the last decade. PLoS ONE, 9(5), e96667. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0096667

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Deutz, N. E., Bauer, J. M., Barazzoni, R., Biolo, G., Boirie, Y., Bosy-Westphal, A., Cederholm, T., et al. (2014). Protein intake and exercise for optimal muscle function with aging: Recommendations from the ESPEN Expert Group. Clinical Nutrition, 33(6), 929–936. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.clnu.2014.04.007

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • DRI-Dietary Reference Intakes for energy, carbohydrate, fiber, fat, fatty acids, cholesterol, protein, and amino acids (2005). Institute of Medicine. National Academy Press.

  • Fanelli, K. M., Pohlig, R. T., Stave, S. E., Zonderman, A. B., & Evans, M. K. (2018). Dietary protein intake and overall diet quality are associated with handgrip strength in African Americans and White Adults. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 22(6), 700–709. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-018-1006-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Farsijani, S., Payette, H., Morais, J. A., Shatenstein, B., Gaudreau, P., & Chevalier, S. (2017). Even mealtime distribution of protein intake is associated with greater muscle strength, but not with 3-y physical function decline, in free-living older adults: The Quebec longitudinal study on nutrition as a determinant of successful aging (NuAge study). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 106(1), 113–124. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.116.146555

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ferreira, M. P. N., Previdelli, A. N., Freitas, T. I., Marques, K. M., Goulart, R. M. M., & Aquino, R. C. (2017). Dietary patterns and associated factors among the elderly. Revista Brasileira De Geriatria e Gerontologia, 20(4), 538–549. https://doi.org/10.1590/1981-22562017020.160115

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gaspareto, N., Previdelli, A. N., & Aquino, R. C. (2017). Factors associated with protein consumption in elderly. Brazilian Journal of Nutrition, 30(6), 805–816. https://doi.org/10.1590/1678-98652017000600012

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Gaytán-González, A., Ocampo-Alfaro, M. J., Torres-Naranjo, F., Arroniz-Rivera, M., González-Mendoza, R. G., Gil-Barreiro, M., & López-Taylor, J. R. (2020). The consumption of two or three meals per day with adequate protein content is associated with lower risk of physical disability in Mexican adults aged 60 years and older. Geriatrics (basel), 5(1), 1. https://doi.org/10.3390/geriatrics5010001

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hair, J. F., Black, W. C., & Anderson, R. E. (2010). Multivariate data analysis: Global edition (7th ed.). Pearson Education.

    Google Scholar 

  • Harttig, U., Haubrock, J., Knuppel, S., & Boeing, H. (2011). EFCOVAL consortium. The MSM program: Web-based statistics package for estimating usual dietary intake using the multiple source method. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 65(Suppl 1), S87-91. https://doi.org/10.1038/ejcn.2011.92

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Hayashi, A. P., de Capitani, M. D., Dias, S. F., et al. (2020). Number of high-protein containing meals correlates with muscle mass in pre-frail and frail elderly. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 74, 1047–1053. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-020-0618-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Huang, R. Y., Yang, K. C., Chang, H. H., Lee, L. T., Lu, C. W., & Huang, K. C. (2016). The association between total protein and vegetable protein intake and low muscle mass among the community-dwelling elderly population in northern Taiwan. Nutrients, 8(6), E373. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu8060373

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Krok-Schoen, J. L., Jonnalagadda, S. S., Luo, M., Kelly, O. J., & Taylor, C. A. (2019). Nutrient Intakes from meals and snacks differ with age in middle-aged and older Americans. Nutrients, 11(6), E1301. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu11061301

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Layman, D. K., Anthony, T. G., Rasmussen, B. B., Adams, S. H., Lynch, C. J., Brinkworth, G. D., & Davis, T. A. (2015). Defining meal requirements for protein to optimize metabolic roles of amino acids. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 101(Suppl), 1330S-1338S. https://doi.org/10.3945/ajcn.114.084053

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Lebrão M. L., Duarte Y. A. O. (org). (2003). O Projeto SABE no Município de São Paulo: uma abordagem inicial. Brasília: Organização Pan Americana de Saúde / Ministério da Saúde; 2003. Available online: http://livros01.livrosgratis.com.br/op000002.pdf. Accessed 14 January 2020.

  • Mendonça, N., Granic, A., Hill, T. R., Siervo, M., Mathers, J. C., Kingston, A., & Jagger, C. (2019). Protein Intake and disability trajectories in very old adults: The Newcastle 85+ Study. Journal American Geriatric Society, 67(1), 50–56. https://doi.org/10.1111/jgs.15592

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mendonça, N., Granic, A., Mathers, J. C., Hill, T. R., Siervo, M., Adamson, A. J., & Jagger, C. (2018). Prevalence and determinants of low protein intake in very old adults: Insights from the Newcastle 85+ Study. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 57(8), 2713–2722. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-017-1537-5

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Norton, C., Toomey, C., McCormack, W. G., Francis, P., Saunders, J., Kerin, E., et al. (2016). Protein supplementation at breakfast and lunch for 24 weeks beyond habitual intakes increases whole-body lean tissue mass in healthy older adults. Journal of Nutrition, 146(1), 65–69. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.115.219022

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Otsuka, R., Tange, C., Tomida, M., Nishita, Y., Kato, Y., Yuki, A., Ando, F., Shimokata, H., & Arai, H. (2019). Dietary factors associated with the development of physical frailty in community-dwelling older adults. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 23(1), 89–95. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-018-1124-3

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ram, A., Kerse, N., Moyes, S. A., Muru-Lanning, M., & Wham, C. (2020). Dietary protein intake and determinants in Māori and Non-Māori Octogenarians. Te Puāwaitanga o Ngā Tapuwae Kia Ora Tonu: Life and living in advanced age: A cohort study in New Zealand. Nutrients, 12(7), 2079. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu12072079

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Sandoval-Insausti, H., Pérez-Tasigchana, R. F., López-García, E., García-Esquinas, E., Rodríguez-Artalejo, F., & Guallar-Castillón, P. (2016). Macronutrients intake and incident frailty in older adults: A prospective cohort study. Journal of Gerontology Series A Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences, 71(10), 1329–1334. https://doi.org/10.1093/gerona/glw033

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ten Haaf, D. S. M., de Regt, M. F., Visser, M., Witteman, B. J. M., de Vries, J. H. M., Eijsvogels, T. M. H., & Hopman, M. T. E. (2018a). Insufficient protein intake is highly prevalent among physically active elderly. Journal of Nutrition Health and Aging, 22(9), 1112–1114. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12603-018-1075-8

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • ten Haaf, D. S. M., van Dongen, E. J. I., Nuijten, M. A. H., Eijsvogels, T. M. H., de Groot, L. C. P. G. M., & Hopman, M. T. E. (2018b). Protein intake and distribution in relation to physical functioning and quality of life in community-dwelling elderly people: Acknowledging the role of physical activity. Nutrients, 10(4), 506. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu10040506

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tieland, M., Borgonjen-Van den Berg, K. J., van Loon, L. J., & de Groot, L. C. (2012). Dietary protein intake in community-dwelling, frail, and institutionalized elderly people: Scope for improvement. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 51(2), 173–179. https://doi.org/10.1007/s00394-011-0203-6

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tieland, M., Borgonjen-Van den Berg, K. J., Van Loon, L. J., & de Groot, L. C. (2015). Dietary protein intake in dutch elderly people: A focus on protein sources. Nutrients, 7(12), 9697–9706. https://doi.org/10.3390/nu7125496

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Tome, D. (2018). Protein: What’s on in research on clinical nutrition. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 72(9), 1215–1220. https://doi.org/10.1038/s41430-018-0240-9

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • van Vliet, S., Burd, N. A., & van Loon, L. J. (2015). The skeletal muscle anabolic response to plant- versus animal-based protein consumption. Journal of Nutrition, 145(9), 1981–1991. https://doi.org/10.3945/jn.114.204305

    Article  Google Scholar 

Download references

Funding

Anima Institute of São Judas Tadeu University. The founding sponsors had no role in the design of the study; in the collection, analyses, or interpretation of data; in the writing of the manuscript, and in the decision to publish the results.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Contributions

Conceptualization (NG, ANP and RCA); Formal analysis (NG and ANP); Funding acquisition (RCA); Methodology (NG, ANP and GCL and RCA); Project administration (RCA); Resources (ANP and RCA); Supervision (RCA); Writing—original draft (NG); Writing—review and editing (RCA).

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Rita de Cássia de Aquino.

Ethics declarations

Conflicts of interest

The authors declare no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

The study was approved by the Research Ethics Committee (CAAE 24855113.6.0000.0089).

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants include in the study.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

About this article

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gaspareto, N., Previdelli, Á.N., Laurentino, G.C. et al. Protein Consumption: Inadequacy in Amount, Food Sources, and Mealtime Distribution in Community-Dwelling Older Adults. Ageing Int 48, 132–145 (2023). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12126-021-09465-3

Download citation

  • Accepted:

  • Published:

  • Issue Date:

  • DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12126-021-09465-3

Keywords

Navigation