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Mapping Concepts of Agency in Educational Contexts

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Abstract

The purpose of this conceptual paper is to explore and map the “espoused theories” (Argyris and Schön 1978) of agency used in educational contexts. More precisely, we limit the focus on the normative view of student agency assumed within dominant school practices, desired by educational practitioners, leaving out non-normative emerging agencies such as student agency of resistance. Agency is a “tricky” concept, and often scholars who use the concept of agency do not define or operationalize it (e.g., Archer 2000). One reason is that there is no consensus among scholars about the notion of agency, especially when applied to educational contexts (Hitlin and Elder Sociological Theory, 25 (2), 170–191, 2007). Moreover, the recent neoliberal framing of individuals’ agency as fully autonomous, flexible, and self-entrepreneur is adding the dilemma of agency manipulation in the sphere of education (Gershon 2011; Sidorkin 2004). To tackle this dilemma in educational contexts, we suggest to further interrogating the normative notion of agency in all its modes and develop a more nuanced conceptualization. We hope that such conceptualization would produce an understanding of the diverse manifestations and definitions of agency within a human ideal, educational content, behaviors, and social settings. We observed diverse uses of the normative term “agency” in educational discourse. We examined the term as used by researchers and practitioners. We also looked at the different ways it has been used in philosophical discussions of education, political framing of the civic role of schooling, disciplinary policy statements, school mission statements, and in everyday common use. It is worthy to note that our categorization of the use and meaning of the normative term “agency” depends on the scholars’ epistemological paradigmatic assumptions, socio-political and historical situatedness, and ontological projects being translated into diverse scholarships of education. As a result of our research, we suggest four major normative conceptual frameworks related to agency mainly being adopted in educational contexts that we labeled as: 1) instrumental, 2) effortful, 3) dynamically emergent, and 4) authorial. In this paper, we discuss these normative approaches to agency as we compare and contrast the assumptions and their consequences for the current field of education, mostly from a point of view of authorial definition of agency (our bias).

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Notes

  1. For more information on the French Canadian nationalism see http://www.thecanadianencyclopedia.ca/en/article/french-canadian-nationalism/

  2. All studies and sciences that involve studying human affairs (Bakhtin 1986).

  3. The concept of agency is polysemic. We want to distinguish our use of the notion of agency here from a reference to competent service and fulfillment of a client’s will (as it, for example, is in “travel agency”) (Shapiro 2005).

  4. “…a ‘self-entrepreneurial’ individual [is own who] validates the decision of those inclined to attempt standing on their own rather than be supported by an affiliation to a company or any other kind of institution” (Aronsson 2015).

  5. See an alternative conceptual mapping of the concept of agency (Hitlin and Elder 2007), which probably constitute diverse modes of what we call here “instrumental agency” defined by diverse content of the human capacities. Discussion diverse mapping is outside the scope of this paper.

  6. Dialogic pedagogy involves a family of pedagogies emphasizing the importance of dialogue. Ontological dialogic pedagogy is based on the Bakhtinian premise that meaning making process is essentially dialogic (Matusov 2009; Sidorkin 1999; Wegerif 2007).

  7. The zone of proximal development — a Vygotskian term (Vygotsky 1978).

  8. Curriculum is a pedagogical term defining the content of learning, instruction, or education.

  9. Progressive education involves utilization of students’ past and present experiences for meaningfully teaching curriculum predefined by the society (Dewey 1956).

  10. “An example of an identified regulatory process might be students who prepare very hard for the college entrance examination because going to college is personally important to them. These students study hard because doing well is instrumental for an important self-selected goal. The behavior is extrinsically motivated because it is instrumental, but it is relatively autonomous-because of the person’s having identified with its value and regulation” (Rigby, et al. 1992, p. 170).

  11. “For example, a parent might identify with being an authority figure as well as being a friend to his or her children. These two roles may be equally valued, and they may seem to conflict, but the roles can become integrated through a “creative synthesis” that allows the parent to fully accept and care for the child while at the same time setting limits for his or her behavior. In such cases the two values could co-exist harmoniously with each other and with other aspects of the self, thus not causing psychological stress for the individual. This form of regulation represents the endpoint of internalization and-is indicative of the most mature-regulatory style. When a regulation has been-fully -integrated, the person is less likely to feel controlled even by relevant coercive forces in the environment, instead experiencing those forces as information relevant for-making choices. According to self-determination theory, an integrated regulatory style is the most volitional, autonomous form of extrinsic motivation. Together with intrinsic motivation, it represents the basis for self-determined functioning, which in its fullest sense is characterized by a total involvement of the integrated self” (Rigby, et al. 1992, p. 171).

  12. Consider for example research on “self-directed learning”, in which students’ “self-directed learning” is embedded in the teacher’s assignment and overall teacher-preset curriculum, “Benware and Deci (1984) studied college students’ learning using a directed-learning paradigm. These researchers found that subjects’ self-reports of interest in assigned material, enjoyment of the material, and active involvement in learning covaried with their conceptual understanding of the material. Because the self-report variables reflected subjects’ sense of autonomy and self-regulation in the learning process, this study provided further indication of a positive relation between autonomy and conceptual learning” (Rigby, et al. 1992, p. 173).

  13. Especially sign because as Vygotsky argued tool is primarily directed at the environment and secondary on the individual him/herself, while sign is primarily directed at the individual and other people.

  14. However, mediation often transforms the individual’s desire. Thus, Kohler demonstrated in his experiments with apes that when an ape tries to get a banana located out of direct reach from the cage, she may start looking for implements — a new, emergent, desire as a result of search for mediation — that may help to reach for the banana.

  15. See a debate on gun control in the US. The National Ruffle Association famously opposed to gun control by appealing to individual agency of people, “Guns don’t kill people — people kill people,” while many studies show that availability of guns promotes tragedies even against people’s desires at times (Latour 1996a). In our view, the notion of authorial agency defined as transcendence of the given reconciles this contradiction acknowledging both affordances of the diverse given and personal responsibility of transcendence.

  16. Cf. the recent US Supreme Court decision to give a corporation the same rights and recognition as to a person-citizen. For more information on the corporate personhood in the USA and the Supreme Court decision see https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Corporate_personhood.

  17. Matusov (2011) defines technological pedagogy as education aiming at making students predictably arrive at preset curricular endpoints (i.e., educational standards).

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Correspondence to Eugene Matusov.

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Parts of this paper were presented on the 4th Bakhtinian conference in Hopuhopu, New Zealand, in January 2014. We are thankful to the participants of this symposium for providing very helpful criticism and support. We are also thankful to our colleagues, Lama Jaber, Nermine Abd Elkader, and Antii Rajala, for discussing earlier versions of this paper and for providing criticism, suggestions, and editing. Also, we are thankful to Nilson Doria, an IPBS reviewer, for his very helpful critical comments and suggestions on previous version of the manuscript.

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Matusov, E., von Duyke, K. & Kayumova, S. Mapping Concepts of Agency in Educational Contexts. Integr. psych. behav. 50, 420–446 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12124-015-9336-0

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