Sexual minorities are still stigmatized in many countries. Coming out is not always a choice for many sexual minorities. Mobile dating apps and websites have allowed sexual minorities to selectively disclose their sexual orientation and preferences. They have facilitated and changed how sexual minorities connect and communicate with one another. Research has demonstrated that these apps and websites have allowed users to reach an audience with faster access and farther reach. Contributing to the current literature, I examine how Hornet users are also using other apps concurrently and how this has facilitated contacts between tourists and local Turkish men in an under-studied country. The results indicate that using multiple apps allows some users to overcome language barriers, especially between tourists and Turkish locals.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Subscribe to journal
Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Aydin, B., & Alvarez, M. D. (2016). English-speaking tourists’ evaluation of sustainability attributes in cultural tourism destinations: The case of Cusco. Teorija in Praksa, 53, 942–958.
Bartoş, S. E., Phua, V. C., & Avery, E. (2010). Differences in Romanian men’s online personals by sexualities. The Journal of Men’s Studies, 17(2), 145–154.
Batiste, D. P. (2013). ‘0 feet away’: The queer cartography of French gay men’s geo-social media use. Anthropological Journal of European Cultures, 22(2), 111–132.
Bereket, T., & Adam, B. D. (2006). The emergence of gay identities in contemporary Turkey. Sexualitites, 9(2), 131–151.
Bereket, T., & Adam, B. D. (2008). Navigating Islam and same-sex liaisons among men in Turkey. Journal of Homosexuality, 55(2), 204–222.
Beymer, M. R., Rossi, A. D., & Shu, S. B. (2016). Assessing self-control and geosocial networking app behavior among an online sample of men who have sex with men. Journal of Urban Health, 93(4), 698–708.
Blackwell, C., Birnholtz, J., & Abbott, C. (2015). Seeing and being seen: Co-situation and impression formation using Grindr, a location-aware gay dating app. New Media & Society, 17(7), 1117–1136.
Boratav, H. B., Fişek, G. O., & Eslen-Ziya, H. (2014). Unpacking masculinities in the context of social change: Internal complexities of the identities of married men in Turkey. Men and Masculinities, 17(3), 299–324.
Castañeda, J. G. M. (2015). Grindring the self: Young Filipino gay men’s exploration of sexual identity through a geo-social networking application. Philippine Journal of Psychology, 48(1), 29–58.
Chan, L. S. (2016). How sociocultural context matters in self-presentation: A comparison of U.S. and Chinese profiles on Jack’d, a mobile dating app for men who have sex with men. International Journal of Communication, 10, 6040–6059.
Chan, L. S. (2018). Ambivalence in networked intimacy: Observations from gay men using mobile dating apps. New Media & Society, 20(7), 2566–2581.
Eslen-Ziya, H., & Koc, Y. (2016). Being a gay man in Turkey: Internalised sexual prejudice as a function of prevalent hegemonic masculinity perceptions. An International Journal for Research, Intervention and Care, 18(7), 799–811.
Ferguson, G. M., & Bornstein, M. H. (2012). Remote acculturation: The “Americanization” of Jamaican Islanders. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 36, 167–177.
Goedel, W. C., & Duncan, D. T. (2015). Geosocial-networking app usage patterns of gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men: Survey among users of Grindr, a mobile dating app. JMIR Public Health and Surveillance, 1(1), 37–49.
Gudelunas, D. (2012). There’s an app for that: The uses and gratifications of online social networks for gay men. Sexuality and Culture, 16(4), 347–365.
Hahn, H. A., Dokyoung, S. Y., Sferra, M., Hubbard, M., Thamotharan, S., & Fields, S. A. (2018). Is it too soon to meet? Examining differences in geosocial networking app use and sexual risk behavior of emerging adults. Sexuality and Culture, 22(1), 1–21.
Hightow-Weidman, L., & Muessig, K. E. (2014). Using virtual spaces to engage HIV-positive men who have sex with men online: Considerations for future research and interventions. Sexually Transmitted Diseases, 41(12), 746–758.
Hürriyet Daily News. (2013). Turkey bans gay dating website, app Grindr. Istanbul: Hürriyet Daily News, 19 September. Retrieved December 21, 2017, from http://www.hurriyetdailynews.com/turkey-bans-gay-dating-website-app-grindr-54733.
Koc, Y., & Vignoles, V. L. (2016). Global identification predicts gay-male identity integration and well-being among Turkish gay men. British Journal of Social Psychology, 55, 643–661.
Licoppe, C., Rivière, C. A., & Morel, J. (2016). Grindr casual hook-ups as interactional achievements. New Media & Society, 18(11), 2540–2558.
Liu, M. (2013). Two gay men seeking two lesbians: An analysis of Xinghun (formality marriage) ads on China’s Tianya.cn. Sexuality & Culture, 17(3), 494–511.
MacKee, F. (2016). Social media in gay London: Tinder as an alternative to hook-up apps. Social Media + Society, 2, 1–10.
Oksal, A. (2008). Turkish family members’ attitudes toward lesbians and gay men. Sex Roles, 58(7–8), 514–525.
Özbay, C. (2017). Queering sexualities in Turkey: Gay men, male prostitutes and the city. London: I.B. Tauris & Co., Ltd.
Ozyegin, G. (2012). Reading the closet through connectivity. Social Identities: Journal for the Study of Race, Nation and Culture, 18(2), 201–222.
Phua, V. C. (2016). The prized connection: Portugueseness in Brazilians. InterDISCIPLINARY Journal of Portuguese Diaspora Studies, 5, 25–37.
Phua, V. C., Hopper, J., & Vazquez, O. (2002). Men’s concerns with sex and health in personal advertisements. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 4, 355–363.
Phua, V. C., & Moody, K. P. (2019). Online dating in Singapore: The desire to have children. Sexuality & Culture, 23(2), 494–506.
Tapinc, H. (1992). Masculinity, femininity, and Turkish male homosexuality. In K. Plummer (Ed.), Modern homosexualities: Fragments of lesbian and gay experiences (pp. 39–49). London: Routledge.
Tomlinson, J. (1999). Globalization and culture. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.
Tziallas, E. (2015). Gamified eroticism: Gay male “social networking” applications and self-pornography. Sexuality & Culture, 19(4), 759–775.
Conflict of interest
The author declares that he has no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.
About this article
Cite this article
Phua, V.C. The Use of Hornet and ‘Multi-Apping’ in Turkey. Sexuality & Culture 24, 1376–1386 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-019-09687-3
- Mobile app
- Sexual minorities