The Portrayal of Women in Nationally-Endorsed English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Textbooks for Senior High School Students in Indonesia

  • Budi Setyono
Original Paper


From a critical feminist perspective, women are not fairly represented in English as a foreign language (EFL) textbooks. The unequal representation of women in EFL textbooks potentially affects students’ negative perceptions and misconceptions about gender identity (re)construction. The findings of previous studies on gender issues in language textbooks mostly indicate that they depict gender biases and stereotypes, but some studies reported positive images of women. To continue a critical discourse analysis (CDA) of EFL textbooks from a feminist perspective, the present study looks at visual and textual discourses representing images of women in EFL textbooks in the Indonesian secondary school context. The findings reveal that some gendered discourses expressed by female characters and social actors in the analyzed textbooks support the continuation of gender biases and stereotypes, but some emerging discourses represent constructive images of women. This textual study suggests that as English plays an increasingly important role in a transcultural and post-feminist world, authors of English textbooks must pay attention to the issue of gender in language education.


Critical discourse analysis (CDA) English as a foreign language (EFL) textbooks English teachers Female images Secondary education Indonesia Textbook writers 



This study did not receive research funding from sponsors.

Compliance with Ethical Standard

Conflict of interest

No conflict of interest exists; this study is a research project conducted individually.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals.

Informed Consent

Informed consent from individual participants are not applicable because it examines EFL textbooks as one of the curriculum documents.


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of JemberJemberIndonesia

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