Advertisement

Sexuality & Culture

, Volume 22, Issue 3, pp 817–836 | Cite as

Mononormativity, Polypride, and the “Mono–Poly Wars”

  • Jorge N. Ferrer
Original Paper

Abstract

Both in everyday life and scholarly discourse, monogamists and polyamorists tend to unfavorably portray one another as somehow flawed, misguided, or, in a word, “inferior.” This article documents and critically examines two pairs of interlocked psychosocial attitudes—monopride/polyphobia and polypride/monophobia—mediating this predicament of mutual competition in the context of Western mononormative culture. The ideological nature of these “mono–poly wars” is demonstrated through a brief review of empirical literature on the psychological health and relationship quality of monogamous and polyamorous individuals and couples. The article concludes by outlining a critical pluralist approach that eschews universalizing hierarchies between monogamy and polyamory, and provides tools for making qualitative distinctions within and among relational styles.

Keywords

Monogamy Polyamory Nonmonogamy Mononormativity Polyphobia Polypride Critical pluralism 

Notes

Funding

None.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Author declares that he has no conflict of interest.

Human and Animal Rights Statement

Being theoretical in nature, the article does not involve research with human participants or animals.

References

  1. Amidon, E., Kumar, V. K., & Treadwell, T. (1983). Measurement of intimacy attitudes: The Intimacy Attitude Scale—Revised. Journal of Personality Assessment, 47, 635–639.Google Scholar
  2. Anapol, D. (1997). Polyamory: The new love without limits. Secrets of sustainable intimate relationships. San Rafael, CA: IntiNet Resource Center.Google Scholar
  3. Anapol, D. (2004). A glimpse of harmony. In S. Anderlini-D’Onofrio (Ed.), Plural loves: Designs for bi and poly living (pp. 109–119). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  4. Anapol, D. (2010). Polyamory in the 21st century: Love and intimacy with multiple partners. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  5. Anderlini-D’Onofrio, S. (2004). Plural loves: By and poly utopias for a new millennium. In S. Anderlini-D’Onofrio (Ed.), Plural loves: Designs for by and poly living (pp. 1–6). Binghamton, NY: Harrington Park Press.Google Scholar
  6. Anderlini-D’Onofrio, S. (2010). Gaia and the new politics of love. Notes for a poly planet. Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books.Google Scholar
  7. Anderson, E. (2012). The monogamy gap: Men, love, and the reality of cheating. New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ani, M. (1994). Yurugu: An Afrocentric critique of European thought and behavior. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press.Google Scholar
  9. Apt, C., & Hurlbert, D. F. (1994). The sexual attitudes, behavior, and relationships of women with histrionic personality disorder. Journal of Sex and Marital Therapy, 20, 125–133.Google Scholar
  10. Ashkam, J. (1984). Identity and stability in marriage. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Barash, D. P., & Lipton, J. E. (2009). Strange bedfellows: The surprising connection between sex, evolution, and monogamy. New York, NY: Bellevue Literary Press.Google Scholar
  12. Barker, M. (2005). This is my partner, and this is my. partner’s partner: Constructing a polyamorous identity in a monogamous world. Journal of Constructivist Psychology, 18(1), 75–88.Google Scholar
  13. Barker, M.-J. (2012). Rewriting the rules: An integrative guide to love, sex and relationships. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Barker, M., & Langdridge, D. (Eds.). (2010a). Understanding non-monogamies. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Barker, M., & Langdridge, D. (2010b). Whatever happened to non-monogamies? Critical reflections on recent research and practice. Sexualities, 13(6), 748–772.Google Scholar
  16. Baumeister, R. F. (2000). Gender differences in erotic plasticity: The female sex drive as socially flexible and responsive. Psychological Bulletin, 126(3), 347–374.Google Scholar
  17. Beckerman, S., & Valentine, P. (Eds.). (2002). Cultures of multiple fathers: The theory and practice of partible paternity in lowland South America. Gainesville, FL: University of Florida Press.Google Scholar
  18. Benhabib, S. (2002). The claims of culture: Equality and diversity in the global era. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Benson, P. J. (2008). The polyamory handbook. Bloomington, IN: Author House.Google Scholar
  20. Bergstrand, C. R., & Sinski, J. B. (2010). Swinging in America: Love, sex, and marriage in the 21st century. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  21. Betzig, L. L. (1986). Despotism and differential reproduction: A Darwinian view of history. New York, NY: Aldine de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  22. Birnbaum, G. E., Reis, H. T., Mikulincer, M., Gillath, O., & Orpaz, A. (2006). When sex is more than sex: Attachment orientations, sexual experience, and relationship quality. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 91(5), 929–943.Google Scholar
  23. Brandon, M. (2010). Monogamy: The untold story. Santa Barbara, CA: Praeger.Google Scholar
  24. Brubaker, R. (2016). Trans: Gender and race in an age of unsettled identities. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  25. Brunning, L. (2016). The distinctiveness of polyamory. Journal of Applied Philosophy, 33(3), 1–19.Google Scholar
  26. Buss, D. M. (1994). The evolution of desire: Strategies of human mating. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  27. Buss, D. M. (2000a). Desires in human mating. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 907(1), 39–49.Google Scholar
  28. Buss, D. (2000b). The dangerous passion: Why jealousy is as necessary as love or sex. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  29. Buss, D. M., & Shackelford, T. K. (1997). Susceptibility to infidelity in the first year of marriage. Journal of Research in Personality, 31, 193–221.Google Scholar
  30. Chapais, B. (2010). The deep structure of human society: primate origins and evolution. In P. M. Kappeler & J. B. Silk (Eds.), Mind the gap: Tracing the origins of human universals (pp. 19–51). Heidelberg,: Springer.Google Scholar
  31. Chapais, B. (2013). Monogamy, strongly bounded groups, and the evolution of human social structure. Evolutionary Anthropology, 22(2), 52–65.Google Scholar
  32. Charny, I. W. (1992). Existential/dialectical marital therapy: Breaking the secret code of marital therapy. New York, NY: Brunner Mazel.Google Scholar
  33. Clark, G. A. (1998). Human monogamy. Science, 282, 1047–1048.Google Scholar
  34. Conley, T. D., & Moors, A. C. (2014). More oxygen please! How polyamorous relationship strategies may oxygenate marriage. Psychological Inquiry, 25, 56–63.Google Scholar
  35. Conley, T. D., Moors, A. C., Matsick, J. L., & Ziegler, A. (2012a). The fewer the merrier? Assessing stigma surrounding consensually non-monogamous romantic relationships. Analyses of Social Issues and Public Policy, 13(1), 1–30.Google Scholar
  36. Conley, T. D., Moors, A. C., Ziegler, A., & Karathanasis, C. (2012b). Unfaithful individuals are less likely to practice safer sex than openly non-monogamous individuals. The Journal of Sexual Medicine, 9(6), 1559–1565.Google Scholar
  37. Conley, T. D., Ziegler, A., Moors, A. C., Matsick, J. L., & Valentine, B. A. (2012c). A critical examination of popular assumptions about the benefits and outcomes of monogamous relationships. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 17(2), 124–141.Google Scholar
  38. Deri, J. (2015). Love’s refraction: Jealousy and compersión in queer women’s polyamorous relationships. Toronto, Canada: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  39. Derrida, J. (1981). Positions (trans.: A. Bass). Chicago, IL: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  40. Duncombe, J., Harrison, K., Allen, G., & Marsden, D. (Eds.). (2004). The state of affairs: Explorations in infidelity and commitment. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  41. Easton, D., & Liszt, C. (1998). The ethical slut: A guide to infinite sexual possibilities. San Francisco, CA: Greenery Press.Google Scholar
  42. Ellsworth, R. M. (2011). The human that never evolved: A review of Christopher Ryan and Caclida Jethá, Sex and dawn: How we mate, how we stray, and what it means for modern sexuality. Evolutionary Psychology, 9(3), 325–335.Google Scholar
  43. Emens, E. (2004). Monogamy’s law: Compulsory monogamy and polyamorous existence. New York University Review of Law and Social Change, 29(2), 277–376.Google Scholar
  44. Fay, B. (1987). Critical social science: Liberation and its limits. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  45. Faye, G. (2014). Sex and deviance. London: Arktos Media Ltd.Google Scholar
  46. Ferrer, J. N. (2002). Revisioning transpersonal theory: A participatory vision of human spirituality. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  47. Ferrer, J. N. (2007). Monogamy, polyamory, and beyond. Tikkun: Culture, Spirituality, Politics, 22(1), 37–43, 60–62.Google Scholar
  48. Ferrer, J. N. (2017a). Beyond the non/monogamy system: Fluidity, hybridity, and transcendence in intimate relationships. Psychology and Sexuality.  https://doi.org/10.1080/19419899.2017.1400459.Google Scholar
  49. Ferrer, J. N. (2017b). Participation and the mystery: Transpersonal essays on psychology, education, and the mystery. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  50. Ferrer, J. N. (in press). From romantic jealousy to sympathetic joy: Monogamy, polyamory, and beyond. International Journal of Transpersonal Studies. Google Scholar
  51. Fisher, H. (1992). Anatomy of love: A natural history of mating, marriage, and why we stray. New York, NY: Ballantine.Google Scholar
  52. Franceschi, G. J. (2006). Women maintaining a consensually non-monogamous relationship: A qualitative investigation (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from ProQuest Dissertations and Theses Global. (Order No. 3199398).Google Scholar
  53. Garber, M. (1992). Vested interests: Cross-dressing and cultural anxiety. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  54. Geuss, R. (1981). The idea of a critical theory: Habermas and the Frankfurt school. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Giddens, A. (1992). The transformation of intimacy: Sexuality, love, and eroticism in modern societies. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  56. Goss, R. E. (2004). Proleptic sexual love: God’s promiscuity reflected in Christian polyamory. Theology and Sexuality, 11(1), 52–63.Google Scholar
  57. Grunt-Mejer, K., & Campbell, C. (2016). Around consensual nonmonogamies: Assessing attitudes toward nonexclusive relationships. Journal of Sex Research, 53(1), 45–53.Google Scholar
  58. Halpern, E. L. (1999). If love is so wonderful, what’s so scary about MORE? Journal of Lesbian Studies, 3(1/2), 157–164.Google Scholar
  59. Haritaworn, J., Lin, C. J., & Klesse, C. (2006). Poly/logue: A critical introduction to polyamory. Sexualities, 9(5), 515–529.Google Scholar
  60. Heaphy, B., Donovan, C., & Weeks, J. (2004). A different affair? Openness and nonmonogamy in same sex relationships. In J. Duncombe, K. Harrison, G. Allen, & D. Marsden (Eds.), The state of affairs: Explorations in infidelity and commitment (pp. 167–186). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  61. Heinlin, K., & Heinlin, R. (2004). The sex and love handbook: Polyamory! Bisexuality! Swingers! Spirituality! (and even) monogamy! A Practical optimistic relationship guide. San Francisco, CA: Do Things Records & Publishing.Google Scholar
  62. Herlihy, D. (1995). Biology and human history: The triumph of monogamy. Journal of Interdisciplinary History, 24, 571–583.Google Scholar
  63. Hite, S. (1991). The Hite report on love, passion, and emotional violence. London: Optima.Google Scholar
  64. Ho, P. S. Y. (2006). The (charmed) circle game: Reflections on sexual hierarchy through multiple sexual relationships. Sexualities, 9(5), 547–564.Google Scholar
  65. Hymer, S. M., & Rubin, A. M. (1982). Alternative lifestyle clients: Therapists’ attitudes and clinical experiences. Small Group Research, 13, 532–541.Google Scholar
  66. Jackson, S., & Scott, S. (2004). The personal is still political: Heterosexuality, feminism, and monogamy. Feminism and Psychology, 14(1), 151–157.Google Scholar
  67. Jamieson, L. (1998). Intimacy. Cambridge: Polity.Google Scholar
  68. Jenkins, C. S. I. (2015). Modal monogamy. Ergo: An Open Access Journal of Philosophy, 2(8), 175–194.Google Scholar
  69. Kanazawa, S., & Still, M. C. (1999). Why monogamy? Social Forces, 78, 25–50.Google Scholar
  70. Kane, P. (2010). The monogamy challenge: Creating and keeping intimacy. Redmond, WA: Relationship Transformations Press.Google Scholar
  71. Kipnis, L. (2003). Against love: A polemic. New York, NY: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  72. Kirsch, J. (2004). God against the Gods: The history of the war between monotheism and polytheism. New York, NY: Viking Compass.Google Scholar
  73. Klesse, C. (2006). Polyamory and its ‘others’: Contesting the terms of non-monogamy. Sexualities, 9(5), 565–583.Google Scholar
  74. Klesse, C. (2014). Polyamory: Intimate practice, identity, or sexual orientation? Sexualities, 17(1/2), 81–99.Google Scholar
  75. Kolesar, A. E. A. (2010). Spiritual identities of multiply partnered people (Doctoral dissertation: Institute of Transpersonal Psychology).Google Scholar
  76. Kurdek, L. A. (1988). Relationship quality of gay and lesbian cohabitating couples. Journal of Homosexuality, 15, 93–118.Google Scholar
  77. Kurdek, L. A., & Schmitt, J. P. (1986). Relationship quality of gay men in closed or open relationships. Journal of Homosexuality, 12(2), 85–99.Google Scholar
  78. LaSala, M. C. (2004). Monogamy of the heart: Extradyadic sex and gay male couples. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Social Services, 17(3), 1–24.Google Scholar
  79. Lehmiller, J. J. (2015). A comparison of sexual health history and practices among monogamous and consensually nonmonogamous sexual partners. Journal of Sexual Medicine, 12(10), 2022–2028.Google Scholar
  80. Loevinger, J. (1976). Ego development. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.Google Scholar
  81. Loue, S. (2006). Sexual partnering, sexual practices, and health. New York, NY: Springer.Google Scholar
  82. Lukas, D., & Clutton-Brock, T. H. (2013). The evolution of social monogamy in mammals. Science, 341, 526–530.Google Scholar
  83. MacDonald, K. B. (1995). The establishment and maintenance of socially imposed monogamy in Western Europe. Politics and the Life Sciences, 14, 3–23.Google Scholar
  84. Masters, R. A. (2007). Transformation through intimacy: The journey toward mature monogamy. Ashland, OR: Tehmenos Press.Google Scholar
  85. McGrane, B. (1989). Beyond anthropology: Society and the other. New York, NY: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  86. McKeever, N. (2015). Is the requirement of sexual exclusivity consistent with romantic love? Journal of Applied Philosophy.  https://doi.org/10.1111/japp.12157.Google Scholar
  87. Miller, L. C., & Fishkin, S. A. (1997). On the dynamics of human bonding and reproductive success: Seeking windows on the adapted-for human–environment interface. In J. A. Simpson & D. T. Kenrich (Eds.), Evolutionary social psychology (pp. 197–235). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  88. Mint, P. (2010). The power mechanisms of jealousy. In M. Barker & D. Langdridge (Eds.), Understanding non-monogamies (pp. 201–206). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  89. Mogilski, J. K., Memering, S. L., Welling, L. L. M., & Shackelford, T. (2017). Monogamy versus consensual non-monogamy: Alternative approaches to pursuing strategically pluralistic mating strategy. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 46(2), 407–417.Google Scholar
  90. Moors, A. C., Conley, T. D., Edelstein, R. S., & Chopin, W. J. (2015). Attached to monogamy? Avoidance predicts willingness to engage (but not actual engagement) in consensual non-monogamy. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 32(2), 222–240.Google Scholar
  91. Morell, V. (1998). A new look at monogamy. Science, 281(5385), 1982–1983.Google Scholar
  92. Morrison, T. G., Beaulieu, D., Brockman, M., & Beaglaoich, C. Ó. (2013). A comparison of polyamorous and monoamorous persons: Are there differences in indices of relationship well-being and sociosexuality? Psychology and Sexuality, 4, 75–91.Google Scholar
  93. Noël, M. J. (2006). Progressive polyamory: Considering issues of diversity. Sexualities, 9(5), 602–620.Google Scholar
  94. Opie, C. F. (2013). The evolution of social systems in human and non-human primates (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from http://ethos.bl.uk/OrderDetails.do?uin=uk.bl.ethos.581239.
  95. Page, E. H. (2004). Mental health services experiences of bisexual women and bisexual men: An empirical study. Journal of Bisexuality, 4(1/2), 137–160.Google Scholar
  96. Pallotta-Chiarolli, M. (2010). Border sexualities, border families in schools. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  97. Paper, J. (2005). The deities are many: A polytheistic theology. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  98. Parsons, J. T., Starks, T. J., Gamarel, K. E., & Grov, C. (2012). Non-monogamy and sexual relationship quality among same-sex male couples. Journal of Family Psychology, 26(5), 669–677.Google Scholar
  99. Peabody, S. A. (1982). Alternative lifestyles to monogamous marriage: Variants of normal behavior in psychotherapy clients. Family Relations, 31(3), 425–434.Google Scholar
  100. Petrella, S. (2007). Ethical sluts and closet polyamorists: Dissident eroticism, abject subjects and the normative cycle in self-help books on free love. In N. Rumens & A. Cervantes-Carson (Eds.), Sexual politics of desire and belonging (pp. 151–171). Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Rodopi.Google Scholar
  101. Pieper, M., & Bauer, R. (2005). Polyamory and mono-normativity: Results of an empirical study of non-monogamous patterns of intimacy. Unpublished manuscript. Hamburg, Germany: Research Center for Feminist, Gender, and Queer Studies, University of Hamburg.Google Scholar
  102. Rambukkana, N. (2015). Fraught intimacies: Non/monogamy in the public sphere. Vancouver, Canada: The University of British Columbia.Google Scholar
  103. Ritchie, A. (2010). Discursive constructions of polyamory in mono-normative media culture. In M. Barker & D. Langdridge (Eds.), Understanding non-monogamies (pp. 47–51). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  104. Robinson, V. (1997). My baby just cares for me: Feminism, heterosexuality, and non-monogamy. Journal of Gender Studies, 6(2), 143–157.Google Scholar
  105. Robinson, M. (2013). Monogamy and polyamory as strategies identities. Journal of Bisexuality, 13, 21–38.Google Scholar
  106. Rosa, B. (1994). Anti-monogamy: A radical challenge to compulsory heterosexuality. In G. Griffin, M. Hester, S. Rai, & S. Roseneil (Eds.), Stirring it: Challenges for feminism (pp. 107–120). London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  107. Rowan, A. (1995). How to be not monogamous. In K. Lano & C. Perry (Eds.), Breaking the barriers of desire: New approaches to multiple relationships (pp. 13–19). Nottingham: Five Leaves Publications.Google Scholar
  108. Rubel, A. N., & Boagert, A. F. (2014). Consensual non-monogamy: Psychological well-being and relationship quality correlates. Journal of Sex Research, 52(9), 961–982.Google Scholar
  109. Rubin, A. M. (1982). Sexually open versus sexually exclusive marriage: A comparison of dyadic adjustment. Alternative Lifestyles, 5(2), 101–106.Google Scholar
  110. Rubin, A. M., & Adams, J. R. (1986). Outcomes of sexually open marriages. The Journal of Sex Research, 22(3), 311–319.Google Scholar
  111. Ryan, C., & Jethá, C. (2010). Sex at dawn: How we mate, how we stray, and what it means for modern sexuality. New York, NY: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  112. Rycenga, J. (1995). Clearly God intended polemics to the threadbare: Some Christian theological justifications for monogamy and polygyny. In K. Lano & C. Perry (Eds.), Breaking the barriers of desire: New approaches to multiple relationships (pp. 87–98). Nottingham: Five Leaves Publications.Google Scholar
  113. Saxon, L. (2011). Sex at dusk: Lifting the shiny wrapping from Sex at dawn. Lexington, KY: CreateSpace.Google Scholar
  114. Schippers, M. (2016). Beyond monogamy: Polyamory and the future of polyqueer sexualities. New York: New York University Press.Google Scholar
  115. Schmitt, D. E. (2005). Sociosexuality from Argentina to Zimbanwe: A 48-nation study of sex, culture, and strategies of human mating. Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 28(2), 247–275.Google Scholar
  116. Sheff, E. (2005). Polyamorous women, sexual subjectivity, and power. Journal of Contemporary Ethnography, 34(3), 251–283.Google Scholar
  117. Sheff, E. (2006). Poly-hegemonic masculinities. Sexualities, 9(5), 621–642.Google Scholar
  118. Sheff, E. (2014). The polyamorists next door: Inside multi-partner relationships and families. Lanham, MD: Rowman and Littlefield.Google Scholar
  119. Sheff, E., & Hammers, C. (2011). The privilege of perversities: Race, class, and education among polyamorists and kinksters. Psychology and Sexuality, 2(3), 198–223.Google Scholar
  120. Soble, A. (1987). The unity of romantic love. Philosophy and Theology, 1(4), 374–397.Google Scholar
  121. Solomon, R. C. (2006). About love: Reinventing romance for our times. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett.Google Scholar
  122. Spears, B., & Lowen, L. (2016). Choices: Perspectives of gay men on monogamy, non-monogamy, and marriage. San Bernardino, CA: CreateSpace.Google Scholar
  123. Stacey, J. (2011). Unhitched: Love, marriage, and family values from West Hollywood to Western China. New York, NY: University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Stearns, P. N. (2009). Sexuality in world history. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  125. Stelboum, J. P. (2010). Patriarchal monogamy. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 3(1–2), 39–46.Google Scholar
  126. Summers, K. (2005). The evolutionary ecology of despotism. Evolution and Human Behavior, 26(1), 106–135.Google Scholar
  127. Swan, D. J., & Thompson, S. C. (2016). Monogamy, the protective fallacy: Sexual versus emotional exclusivity and the implication for sexual health risk. The Journal of Sex Research, 53(1), 64–73.Google Scholar
  128. Taormino, T. (2008). Opening up: A guide to creating and sustaining open relationships. New York, NY: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  129. Tibbetts, L. (2001). Commitment in monogamous and polyamorous relationships. Written for Social Work, 521. Washburn University. Retrieved from http://picucci.net/Star/Relationships/polypaper.html.
  130. Treas, J., & Giesen, D. (2000). Sexual infidelity among married and cohabiting Americans. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 48–60.Google Scholar
  131. Tucker, W. (2014). Marriage and civilization: How monogamy made us human. Washington, DC: Regnery.Google Scholar
  132. van Anders, S., Hamilton, L. D., & Watson, N. V. (2007). Multiple partners are associated with higher testosterone in North American men and women. Hormones and Behavior, 41, 454–459.Google Scholar
  133. Vaughan, P. (2003). The monogamy myth: A personal handbook for recovering from affairs. New York, NY: New Market Press.Google Scholar
  134. Veaux, F., & Rickert, F. (2014). More than two: A practical guide to ethical polyamory. Portland, OR: Thorntree Press.Google Scholar
  135. Walker, R. S., Hill, K. R., Flinn, M. V., & Ellsworth, R. M. (2011). Evolutionary history of hunter-gatherer marriage practices. PLoS ONE, 6(4), 1–6.Google Scholar
  136. Walum, H., Lichtenstein, P., Pedersen, N. L., Larsson, H., Anckarster, H., Westberg, L., et al. (2012). Variation in the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) is associated with pair-boding and social behavior. Biological Psychiatry, 71(5), 419–426.Google Scholar
  137. Walum, H., Westberg, L., Henningsson, S., Neiderhiser, J. M., Reiss, D., Igl, W., et al. (2008). Genetic variation in the vasopressin receptor 1a gene (AVPRIA) associates with pair-bonding behavior in humans. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 105(37), 14153–14156.Google Scholar
  138. Webb, (2012). Yanantin and Masintin in the Andean world: Complementary dualism in modern Peru. Albuquerque, NM: University of New Mexico Press.Google Scholar
  139. Weitzman, G. (2006). Therapy with clients who are bisexual and polyamorous. Journal of Bisexuality, 6(1/2), 137–164.Google Scholar
  140. Wilkinson, E. (2010). What’s queer about non-monogamy now? In M. Barker & D. Langdridge (Eds.), Understanding non-monogamies (pp. 243–254). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  141. Willey, A. (2006). ‘Christian nations’, ‘polygamic races’ and women’s rights: Toward a genealogy of non/monogamy and whiteness. Sexualities, 9(5), 530–546.Google Scholar
  142. Willey, A. (2015). Constituting compulsory monogamy: Normative femininity and the limits of imagination. Journal of Gender Studies, 24(6), 621–633.Google Scholar
  143. Willey, A. (2016). Undoing monogamy: The politics of science and the possibilities of biology. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.Google Scholar
  144. Witte, J., Jr. (2015). The Western case of monogamy over polygamy. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  145. Young, A. (2004). Review of The ethical slut: A guide to infinite sexual possibilities, by D. Easton & C. L. Liszt. Off Our Backs (May/June), 38–39.Google Scholar
  146. Young, L. J., Nilsen, R., Waymire, K. G., MacGregor, G. R., & Insel, T. R. (1999). Increased affiliative response to vasopressin in mice expressing the V1a receptor from a monogamous vole. Nature, 400(6746), 766–768.Google Scholar
  147. Zanin, A. (2013). The problem with polynormativity [blog post]. Retrieved from https://sexgeek.wordpress.com/2013/01/24/theproblemwithpolynormativity.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.California Institute of Integral StudiesSan FranciscoUSA

Personalised recommendations