Sexuality & Culture

, Volume 22, Issue 1, pp 63–89 | Cite as

“The Destruction of a Legacy”: Agenda Setting and the Bill Cosby Sexual Assault Allegations

Original Paper

Abstract

Utilizing agenda setting theory, this study investigates the Bill Cosby sexual assault allegation scandal and how the scandal is framed by the media. In order to examine if and how varied networks reported differently on the Cosby scandal, sixty articles from three, distinct networks (CNN, FOX News, E!) were analyzed and coded under seven different categories. Results demonstrate a significant difference among the analyzed networks and media frames most reported in the sample for this study. Although all networks address Cosby’s rise and fall of an American hero, agendas set and story frames presented varied. Specifically, CNN highlighted victims’/survivors’ powerful voice whereas E! and FOX News highlighted Cosby’s support from the black community, celebrities and co-stars. Additional results, discussion and future directions follow.

Keywords

Agenda setting theory Mediated communication Bill Cosby Sexual assault Scandal 

Notes

Acknowledgements

This manuscript is based on the first author’s thesis, directed by the second author. The authors thank Dr. Tara McManus, Dr. Jennifer Guthrie and Dr. David Dickens for their helpful comments on the project. An earlier version of this MS was accepted to the 2017 National Communication Association conference, Dallas, TX.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors are not aware of any conflict of interest pertained to this manuscript.

Human and Animal Rights

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.

Informed Consent

Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

References

  1. Aday, S. S., Livington, S., & Hebert, M. (2005). Embedding the truth: A cross-cultural analysis of objectivity and television coverage of the Iraq war. The Harvard International Journal of Press/Politics, 10(3), 3–21. doi: 10.1177/1081180X05275727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Alterman, E. (2003). What liberal media? The truth about bias and the news. New York, NY: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  3. Baxter, L. A., & Babbie, E. (2004). The basics of communication research. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth.Google Scholar
  4. Berger, A. A. (2008). Manufacturing desire: Media, popular culture, and everyday life. New Brunswick, N.J.: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  5. Botelho, G. (2014). Famed model hopes her Cosby allegation spurs others to come forward. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.cnn.com/2014/12/12/showbiz/celebrity-news-gossipbeverlyjohnson-cosby-allegations/
  6. Bowen, S. (2017). The problem with Bill Cosby’s race defense. Retrieved on July 10, 2017 from http://www.refinery29.com/2017/05/154734/bill-cosby-rape-allegations-racism-black-men-bias.
  7. Bowley, G., Pérez-Peña, R. & Hurdle, J. (2017). Bill Cosby’s sexual assault case ends in a mistrial. Retrieved on July 10, 2017 from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/06/17/arts/television/bill-cosby-trial-day-11.html.
  8. Bracks, L. (2011). Bill Cosby (1937–) in African American Almanac: 400 years of triumph, courage, and excellence. Canton, MI: Visible Ink Press.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, W. J., Duane, J. J., & Fraser, B. P. (1997). Media coverage and public opinion of the O.J. Simpson trial: Implications for the criminal justice system. Communication Law and Policy, 2(2), 261–287. doi: 10.1080/10811689709368625.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Cady, J. (2015). Bill Cosby’s accusers: 35 women speak out in powerful ‘New York Magazine’ cover story. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.etonline.com/news/168733_bill_cosby_35_women_speak_out_new_york_magazine/.
  11. Carlson, A. (2015). Bill Cosby admits and defends his extramarital affairs, giving women drugs, in newly released court documents. Retrieved on July 10, 2017 from http://people.com/celebrity/bill-cosby-deposition-released-admits-affairs-and-giving-women-drugs/.
  12. Chernov, G., Valenzuela, S., & McCombs, M. (2011). An experimental comparison of two perspectives on the concept of need for orientation in agenda-setting theory. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 88(1), 142–155. doi: 10.1177/107769901108800108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Choi, B. & Xiong, X. (2012). Finding updated webpages on the Internet. In Proceedings of International Conference on Advances in Communication and Information. doi: 03.css.2012.3.15.Google Scholar
  14. Croteau, D., & Hoynes, W. (2006). The business of media: Corporate media and the public interest. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications Inc.Google Scholar
  15. Culp-Ressler, T. (2015). The media still won’t use Bill Cosby and rape in a headline. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from https://thinkprogress.org/amp/p/befe3fc73295?gi=78699af0b3ba.
  16. de Zengotita, T. (2006). Mediated: How the media shapes your world and the way you live in it. New York, N.Y.: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  17. Desmond-Harris, J. (2015). Bill Cosby’s disturbing love of power, from race rants to drugging women. Retrieved on July 10, 2017 from https://www.vox.com/2014/11/21/7259069/bill-cosby-rape-allegations.
  18. Ember, S. & Bowley, G. (2015). Bill Cosby charged in sexual assault case. Retrieved on March 20, 2017 from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/12/31/business/media/bill-cosby-charged-in-sexual-assault-case.html.
  19. Emmers, T. M., & Canary, D. J. (1996). The effect of uncertainty reducing strategies on young couples’ relational repair and intimacy. Communication Quarterly, 44(2), 166–182. doi: 10.1080/01463379609370008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. ETonline Staff (2017). Bill Cosby’s accusers: A timeline of alleged sexual assault claims (updated). Retrieved on July 10, 2017 from http://www.etonline.com/news/154160_timeline_of_bill_cosby_sexual_assault_allegations/.
  21. Eveland, W. P., Sea, M., & Marton, K. (2009). Learning from the news in campaign 2000: An experimental comparison of TV news, newspapers, and online news. Media Psychology, 4(4), 353–378. doi: 10.1207/S1532785XMEP0404_03.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Feldman, L., Maibach, Roser-Renouf, C., & Leiserowitz, A. (2011). Climate on cable: The nature and impact of global warming coverage on Fox news, CNN, and MSNBC. The International Journal of Press/Politics, 2, 1–29. doi: 10.1177/1940161211425410.Google Scholar
  23. Finn, N. (2014a). Bill Cosby lawyer: Actress’ claim that comedian assaulted her at Tonight Show in 1971 is “ridiculous,” wild story. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/news/599996/bill-cosby-lawyer-actress-claim-that-comedianassaulted-her-at-tonight-show-in-1971-is-ridiculous-wild-story.
  24. Finn, N. (2014b). Donald Trump thinks Bill Cosby needs a better PR team: Comedian should be handling rape allegations “differently.” Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/uk/news/599836/donald-trump-thinks-bill-cosby-needs-a-betterpr-team-comedian-should-be-handling-rape-allegations-differently.
  25. FOX News (2014a). Accused rapist Cee Lo Green on Bill Cosby: ‘I definitely can’t judge him. ’Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2014/12/05/accused-rapist-cee-lo-green-on-bill-cosby-definitely-cant-judge-him.html.
  26. FOX News (2014b). Cosby’s lawyer says comedian will not make any comments on rape claims. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2014/11/16/cosby-lawyer-says-cos-will-not-make-any-comments-on-rape-claims.html.
  27. FOX News. (2014c). Janice Dickinson on Bill Cosby: “He is a monster… and he raped me.” Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2014/12/02/janice-dickinson-bill-cosby-shouldacknowledge-monster-and-raped-me.html.
  28. FOX News. (2015a). President Obama on Bill Cosby: If you give someone a drug and have sex with them, that’s rape. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2015/07/15/president-barack-obama-there-is-no-precedent-to-revoke-bill-cosby-medal-freedom.html.
  29. FOX News. (2015b). Whoopi Goldberg: Bill Cosby is ‘innocent until proven guilty.’ Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2015/07/07/whoopi-goldberg-bill-cosby-is-innocent-until-proven-guilty.html.
  30. Gray, E. (2015). Why Bill Cosby admitted under oath to getting drugs to have sex with women. Retrieved on July 10, 2017 from http://time.com/3951761/bill-cosby-quaaludes-admission-oath/.
  31. Green-Pedersen, C., & Wilkerson, J. (2006). How agenda-setting attributes shape politics: Basic dilemmas, problem attention and health politics developments in Denmark and the U.S. Journal of European Public Policy, 13(7), 1039–1052. doi: 10.1080/13501760600924092.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Grinberg, E. (2015). Bill Cosby faces new allegations of sexual assault. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.cnn.com/2015/10/01/entertainment/bill-cosby-new-accusers-feat/index.html.
  33. Groeling, T. & Baum, M. A. (2007, September). Iraq and the ‘Fox Effect’: An examination of polarizing media and public support for international conflict. In Annual Meeting of the American Political Science Association, Chicago.Google Scholar
  34. Grossman, S. (2015). Here are the places that have cut ties with Bill Cosby. Retrieved on May 6, 2016 from http://time.com/4164222/bill-cosby-sexual-assault-cut-ties/.
  35. Harnick, C. (2014). South Park holiday special will feature Bill Cosby, Taylor Swift, Iggy Azalae and more. Retrieved on September 16, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/ca/news/604789/south-park-holiday-special-will-feature-bill-cosby-taylor-swift-iggy-azalea-and-more.
  36. Harrison, L. & Machado, B. (2014). Bill Cosby fires back at sexual abuse accuser, claims woman tried to extort $250,000. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/au/news/603731/bill-cosby-fires-back-at-sexual-abuse-accuserclaims-woman-tried-to-extort-250-000.
  37. Harrison, L. & Rosenbaum, C. (2015). Janice Dickinson suing Bill Cosby for defamation after response to rape allegations. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/news/658660/janice-dickinson-suing-bill-cosby-for-defamationafter-response-to-rape-allegations.
  38. Heller, C. (2014). Bill Cosby’s lawyer issues statement about sexual assault allegations, following actor’s recorded silence in NPR interview. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/news/598300/bill-cosby-s-lawyer-issues-statement-aboutsexual-assault-allegations-following-actor-s-recorded-silence-in-npr-interview.
  39. Helsel, P. (2015). Bill Cosby accusers share stories of drugging, assault on A & E. Retrieved on May 6, 2016 from http://nbcnews.com/storyline/bill-cosby-scandal/bill-cosby-accusers-share-stories-drugging-assault-e-n429541.
  40. Hertog, J. K., & McLeod, D. M. (2001). A multiperspectival approach to framing analysis: A field guide. In S. D. Reese, O. H. Gandy, & A. E. Grant (Eds.), Framing public life: Perspectives on media and our understanding of the social world (pp. 141–161). Nahwah, N.J.: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Publishers.Google Scholar
  41. Hetter, K. (2014). Bill Cosby resigns from Temple University board. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.cnn.com/2014/12/01/showbiz/bill-cosby-resigns-temple-university-board/.
  42. Holpuch, A., Glenza, J. & Woolf, N. (2015). The Bill Cosby sexual abuse claims57 women and the dates they went public. Retrieved on July 10, 2017 from https://www.theguardian.com/world/2015/dec/31/bill-cosby-sexual-abuse-claims-57-women-dates-public-accusations.
  43. Howard, A. (2014). Bill Cosby breaks silence: Black media will stay neutral. Retrieved on July 21, 2016 from http://www.msnbc.com/msnbc/bill-cosby-breaks-silence-black-media-will-stay-neutral#55409.
  44. Hsieh, H. F., & Shannon, S. E. (2005). Three approaches to a qualitative content analysis. Qualitative Health Research, 15(9), 1277–1288. doi: 10.1177/1049732305276687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Jarrett, G. (2014). Bill Cosby: In court of public opinion entertainer has lost, in court of law,he’d likely win. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.foxnews.com/opinion/2014/11/25/bill-cosby-in-court-public-opinionentertainer-has-lost-in-court-law-hed-likely.html.
  46. Jarrett, L. (2017). Judge rules only one additional accuser may testify at Cosby trial. Retrieved on February 24, 2017 from http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/24/us/bill-cosby-trial/index.html.
  47. Johnson, B. (2015). Source: ABC made Whoopi Goldberg change Bill Cosby’s stance. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2015/07/15/source-abcmade-whoopi-goldberg-change-bill-cosby-stance.html.
  48. JVG. (2012). Welcome to generation tweet: 31 percent of online 18 to 24 year-olds use Twitter. Retrieved on February 5, 2016 from http://venturebeat.com/2012/05/31/generation-tweet/on Feb 24, 2017 from http://www.cnn.com/2017/02/24/us/bill-cosby-trial/.
  49. Kim, K., Littlefield, C., Olsen, M. & Etehad, M. (2017). Bill Cosby: A 50-year chronicle of accusations and accomplishments. Retrieved on July 10, 2017 from http://www.latimes.com/entertainment/la-et-bill-cosby-timeline-htmlstory.html.
  50. King, J. D. (2010). The awakening of global consciousness: A guide to self-realization and spirituality. Bloomington, IN: AuthorHouse.Google Scholar
  51. Kohn, S. (2015). Now will you believe Cosby accusers? Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.cnn.com/2015/07/07/opinions/kohn-bill-cosby-quaaludes/index.html.
  52. Kurtz, H. (2014). Why liberals are turning on Bill Cosby over rape allegations. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.foxnews.com/politics/2014/11/18/why-liberals-areturning-on-bill-cosby-over-rape-allegations.html.
  53. Leopold, T. (2014). Rape allegations won’t go away for Bill Cosby. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.cnn.com/2014/11/14/showbiz/tv/bill-cosby-rape-allegations/.
  54. Leopold, T. (2015). Bill Cosby’s TV son Malcolm-Jamal Warner speaks up. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.cnn.com/2015/01/22/entertainment/feat-malcolm-jamal-warner-cosby-comments/index.html.
  55. Lowry, D. T., Ching Josephine Nio, T., & Leitner, D. W. (2003). Setting the public agenda: A longitudinal analysis of network TV crime reporting, public perceptions of crime, and FBI crime statistics. Journal of Communication, 53(1), 61–73. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2003.tb03005.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Lull, J., & Hinerman, S. (1997). Media scandals: Morality and desire in the popular culture marketplace. New York, N.Y.: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  57. Malec, B. (2015). Malcolm-Jamal Warner calls Bill Cosby sexual assault allegations “painful,” praises the “legendary” comedian amid controversy. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/news/616965/malcolm-jamal-warner-calls-bill-cosby-sexual-assault-allegations-painful-praises-the-legendary-comedian-amid-controversy.
  58. McCombs, M. (2004). Setting the agenda: The mass media and public opinion. Cambridge, UK: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  59. McCombs, M. (2009). Agenda-setting theory of Maxwell McCombs & Donald Shaw. In E. Griffin (Ed.), A first look at communication theory (pp. 359–370). New York, N.Y.: McGraw Hill.Google Scholar
  60. McCombs, M., Llamas, J. P., Lopez-Escobar, E., & Rey, F. (1998). Candidate images in Spanish elections: Second-level agenda-setting effects. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 74(4), 703–717. doi: 10.1177/107769909707400404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. McCombs, M., & Shaw, D. L. (1972). The agenda setting function of mass media. Public Opinion Quarterly, 36(2), 176–187. doi: 10.1016/S0363-8111(77)80008-8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. McKay, J., & Smith, P. (1995). Exonerating the hero: Frames & narratives in media coverage of the O.J Simpson story. Media International Australia, 75, 57–66. doi: 10.1177/1329878X9507500108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. McLaughlin, E. C. (2014). Ex-prosecutor wanted to charge Bill Cosby but lacked evidence. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.cnn.com/2014/11/19/showbiz/bill-cosby-rape-allegation-prosecutor/index.html.
  64. Means Coleman, R. R. (1998). African American viewers and the black situation comedy: Situating racial humor. New York, N.Y.: Garland Publishing Inc.Google Scholar
  65. Merritt, D., & McCombs, M. (2003). The two w’s of journalism: The why and what of public affairs reporting. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  66. Meyer, K. (2015). Blessed with his semen, like ‘holy water’ and other new sexual allegations against Cosby. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://nation.foxnews.com/2015/08/13/blessed-his-semen-holy-water-and-other-newsexual-allegations-against-cosby.
  67. Mitchell, A., Gottfried, J., Barthel, M., & Shearer, E. (2016). The modern news consumer: News attitudes and practices in the digital era.. Retrieved on January 26, 2017 from http://www.journalism.org/2016/07/07/pathways-to-news/.
  68. Mitchell, A., Gottfried, J., Kiley, J., & Matsa, K. A. (2014). Political polarization & media habits. Retrieved on August 2, 2016 from http://www.journalism.org/2014/10/21/political-polarization-media-habits/.
  69. Mitchelstein, E., & Boczkowski, P. J. (2009). Between tradition and change: A review of recent research on online news production. Journalism, 10, 562–586. doi: 10.1177/1464884909106533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Montero-Hernandez, R. (2016). Bill Cosby is legally blind, according to defense attorneys. Retrieved on March 20, 2017 from http://www.cnn.com/2016/10/28/us/bill-cosby-blind/.
  71. Morris, J. S. (2007). Slanted objectivity? Perceived media bias, cable news exposure, and political attitudes. Social Science Quarterly, 88(3), 707–728. doi: 10.1111/j.1540-6237.2007.00479.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Nessif, B. (2014). Bill Cosby memes backfire after Internet focuses on rape allegations. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/news/596722/billy-cosby-memes-backfire-after-internet-focuses-on-rape-allegations.
  73. Nessif, B. (2015). Bill Cosby pokes fun at sexual assault allegations during stand-up routine in Canada. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/news/612808/bill108cosby-pokes-fun-at-sexual-assault-allegations-during-stand-up-routine-in-canada.
  74. Pallota, F. & Shiels, M. (2014). NBC says it’s not moving forward with Bill Cosby project. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://money.cnn.com/2014/11/19/media/cosby-nbc-sitcom/index.html.
  75. Petty, R. E., Briñol, P., & Priester, J. R. (2009). Mass media attitude change: Implications of the elaboration likelihood model of persuasion. In J. Bryant & M. B. Oliver (Eds.), Media effects: Advances in theory and research (3rd ed., pp. 125–164). New York, N.Y.: Routledge.Google Scholar
  76. Pew Research Center (2012). Section 4: Demographics and political views of news audiences. Retrieved on January 26, 2017 from http://www.people-press.org/2012/09/27/section-4-demographics-and-political-views-of-news-audiences/.
  77. Pew Research Center (2016). Pathways to news. Retrieved on July 10, 2017 from http://www.journalism.org/2016/07/07/pathways-to-news/.
  78. Porreca, B. (2016). ‘Neighbors 2’ premiere: Seth Rogen and Rose Byrne explain Zac Efron’s absence. Retrieved on August 27, 2016 from https://www.yahoo.com/movies/neighbors-2-premiere-seth-rogen-rose-byrne-explain-183105827.html.
  79. Rice, L. (2015). Bill Cosby’s lawyer says Quaaludes were used for consensual sex. Retrieved on July 10, 2017 from http://ew.com/article/2015/07/21/bill-cosby-deposition-response/.
  80. Seemayer, Z. (2014). Comedy world reacts to accusations against Bill Cosby. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.foxnews.com/entertainment/2014/12/04/bill-cosby-comedians-react-sad-incomprehensible.html.
  81. Semetko, H. A., & Valkenburg, P. M. (2000). Framing European politics: A content analysis of press and television news. Journal of Communication, 50(2), 93–109. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2000.tb02843.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stelter, B. (2014). Bill Cosby’s attorney calls rape allegations ‘decade-old’ and ‘discredited.’ Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://money.cnn.com/2014/11/15/media/bill-cosby-rape-allegations/index.html.
  83. Stroud, N. J. (2007). Media effects, selective exposure, and Farenheit 9/11. Political Communication, 24, 415–432. doi: 10.1080/10584600701641565.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Stutz, C. (2016). Kanye West nuzzles naked Taylor Swift, Donald Trump & Bill Cosby in ‘Famous’ video. Retrieved on August 27, 2016 from http://www.billboard.com/articles/columns/hip-hop/7416556/kanye-west-naked-taylor-swift-donald-trump-famous-video-premiere.
  85. Telusma, B. (2014). Camille Cosby, another victim of the controversy? Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.cnn.com/2014/11/19/opinion/telusma-camille-cosby/index.html.
  86. Toomey, A. (2014a). Bill Cosby tweets thanks to celeb supporters as three alleged rape victims make jaw-dropping claims in press conference. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/news/603286/bill-cosby-tweets-thanks-to-celeb-supporters-as-three-alleged-rape-victims-make-jaw-dropping-claims-in-press-conference.
  87. Toomey, A. (2014b). Bill Cosby returns to the stage amid rape allegations, jokes that he’s an ‘evil man.’ Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/news/600073/bill-cosby-returns-to-the-stage-amid-rape-allegations-jokes-that-he-s-an-evil-man.
  88. Toomey, A. (2014c). The View hosts butt heads as they debate Bill Cosby allegations (and things get really awkward)- watch. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/news/599750/the-view-hosts-butt-heads-as-they-debate-billcosby-rape-allegations-and-things-get-really-awkward-watch.
  89. Toomey, A. (2015). Bill Cosby’s show will go on: Comedian says he’s “far from finished,” calls comedy tour “family, fun entertainment.” Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.eonline.com/news/615075/bill-cosby-s-show-will-go-on-comedian-says-he-s-far-from-finished-calls-comedy-tour-family-fun-entertainment.
  90. TV by the numbers (2012). BET is still the #1 cable network among African Americans. Retrieved on August 3, 2016 from http://tvbythenumbers.zap2it.com/2012/12/21/bet-is- still-the-1-cable-network-among-african-americans/.
  91. Weaver, D. H. (2007). Thoughts on agenda setting, framing, and priming. Journal of Communication, 57, 142–147. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2006.00333.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Weaver, H. (2017). Bill Cosby faces another setback in sexual-assault trial. Retrieved on January 31, 2017 from http://www.vanityfair.com/style/2017/01/bill-cosby-trial-location-change.
  93. Whitaker, M. (2014). Cosby: His life and times. New York, N.Y.: Simon & Schuster.Google Scholar
  94. Willis, J. (2014). Bill Cosby tweets thanks to Whoopi Goldberg, Jill Scott for their support. Retrieved on October 20, 2016 from http://www.etonline.com/news/154640_bill_cosby_thanks_supporters_jill_scott_and_whoopi_goldberg/.
  95. Wu, H. D., & Coleman, R. (2009). Advancing agenda-setting theory: The comparative strength and new contingent conditions of the two levels of agenda-setting effects. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 86(4), 775–789. doi: 10.1177/107769900908600404.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Zinoman, J. (2017). In Netflix specials, Dave Chapelle challenges his audience, The New York Times. Retrieved on March 22, 2017 from https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/17/arts/television/netflix-specials-dave-chappelle-review.html.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of CommunicationUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Communication StudiesUniversity of NevadaLas VegasUSA

Personalised recommendations