Dual Contradictory Effects of Self-Objectification on Sexual Satisfaction
- 379 Downloads
Objectification theory provides an explanatory conceptual framework for describing women’s lived experiences. The goal of this study was to examine the relations between media consumption, self-sexualizing behavior, and sexual satisfaction within the objectification framework. Responses from a sample of 298 married Iranian women, chosen using multistage and cluster sampling methods, were collected to explore this relationship. The results revealed that while most of the variables had a negative effect on sexual satisfaction, self-sexualizing behavior had a positive effect. The link between media consumption and sexual satisfaction was mediated by body shame and self-sexualizing behavior. Media consumption, body surveillance, and body shame were positively associated with self-sexualizing behavior and accounted for approximately 24% of its variance. Discussion focuses on the contradictory effect of self-objectification and self-sexualizing behavior on sexual satisfaction.
KeywordsMedia consumption Body surveillance Body shame Self-sexualizing behavior Sexual satisfaction
We thank Professor Tavakol of the University of Tehran for his significant influence in forming the theoretical aspect of our work and his great help in improving the present study through his informative review. Also, many researchers in the department of Social Science and Business Studies at the University of Eastern Finland have been very helpful during different stages of this study and must be greatly thanked. Our special thanks goes to the participating women, living in the religious context of Iran, who put their trust in the project and the researcher and reported some intimate details of their private lives.
The authors received no financial support for the research, authorship, and/or publication of this article.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no conflicts of interest relating financial or personal relationships that may bias the work.
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki Declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all women who participated in the study.
- American Psychological Association, Task Force on the Sexual-objectification of Girls. (2010). Report of the APA task force on the sexual-objectification of girls. http://www.apa.org/pi/women/ programs/girls/report-full.pdf.
- Bannon, W. M. (2013). The 7 Steps of Data Analysis: A Manual for Conducting a Quantitative Analysis. New York: Statewhisperer Press.Google Scholar
- Bay-Chen, L. Y., Livingston, J. A., & Fava, N. M. (2012). “Not always a clear path”: Making space for peers, adults, and complexity in adolescent girls’ sexual development. In E. L. Zurbriggen & T. A. Roberts (Eds.), The sexualizing of girls and girlhood: Causes, consequences, and resistance (pp. 257–277). New York, NY: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Dinarvand, R. (2014). Annual Iranian cosmetics bill at $2b. Iran-daily news. http://www.iran-daily.com/News/57023.html.
- Dittmar, H. (2008). Consumer culture, identity, and well-being: the search for the “good life” and “body perfect”. European Monographs in Social Psychology. London: Psychology press.Google Scholar
- Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Harmondsworth: Penguin Press.Google Scholar
- Hakim, Catherine. (2011). Honey money: The power of erotic capital. London: Allen lone.Google Scholar
- Jannati, A. (2013). When 71 per cent of Iranians watching satellite. TABNAK: Professional News Site(Persian). http://www.tabnak.ir/fa/news/365680/.
- Lance, L. (2006). Searching for love and sex: A review and analysis of mainstream and explicit personal ads. In T. Reichert & J. Lambiase (Eds.), Sex in consumer culture: The erotic content of media and marketing (pp. 337–351). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Mosavian, S. M. (2016). 53 per cent of Iranians are member of social media. Mehr News Agency (Persian). http://www.mehrnews.com/news/3721091/.
- Pardun, C. J., & Forde, K. R. (2006). Sexual content of television commercials watched by early adolescents. In T. Reichert & J. Lambiase (Eds.), Sex in consumer culture: The erotic content of media and marketing (pp. 125–139). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Stulhofer, A., Busko, V., & Brouillard, P. (2011). The new sexual satisfaction scale and its short form. In T. D. Fisher, C. M. Davis, W. L. Yarber, & S. L. Davis (Eds.), Handbook of sexuality-related measures (pp. 530–532). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
- Szalai, I. (2015) Market focus: Beauty growth dynamics in the middle East and Turkey. http://blog.euromonitor.com/2015/04/market-focus-beauty-growth-dynamics-in-the-middle-east-and-turkey.html.
- Vandenbosch, L., & Eggermont, S. (2012). Understanding sexual objectification: A comprehensive approach toward media exposure and girl’s internalization of beauty ideals, self-objectification and body surveillance. Journal of Communication, 62(5), 869–887. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-2466.2012.01667.x.CrossRefGoogle Scholar