Advertisement

Sexuality & Culture

, Volume 19, Issue 3, pp 561–573 | Cite as

Cultural Scripts, Reasons for Having Sex, and Regret: A Study of Iranian Male and Female University Students

  • Zohre Ahmadabadi
  • Leili PanaghiEmail author
  • Ali Madanipour
  • Abbas Sedaghat
  • Mandana Tira
  • Sara Kamrava
  • Gheysar Maleki
Original Paper

Abstract

The present study aims to identify the relationship between the experience of the first sexual intercourse and its ensuing regret among Iranian male and female university students. The population studied includes 2566 students from five universities in Tehran and Tabriz, which was selected through a stratified convenience sampling method. We apply discriminant analysis (DA) and Chi square test to analyze the data. The findings reveal that men are more driven by pleasure, recreation, peer pressure and impulsivity into having sex. According to DA, females—either regretful, and unregretful—have emotional reasons for engaging in sexual intercourse, while males, either regretful or unregretful, do not have such reasons. On the other hand, both regretful males and regretful females engage in sexual intercourse impulsively. We discuss that, although cultural scripts discriminate between males’ and females’ reasons for having sex, sexual regret among university students is not affected by conformity to gender scripts, but by agency and actor’s intentionality.

Keywords

Gender Sexual regret Cultural scripts Intentionality 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was supported by the Centre for Disease Control (CDC), Ministry of Health and Medical Education (MOHME) of Iran and UNAIDS Iran.

References

  1. Afary, J. (2009). Sexual politics in modern Iran. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. AzadArmaki, T., & Saei, M. H. S. (2012). Sociological explanation of anomic sexual relationships in Iran. Journal of Family Research, 7(4 (28)), 435–462. (in Persian).Google Scholar
  3. Barta, W. D., & Kiene, S. M. (2005). Motivations for infidelity in heterosexual dating couples: The roles of gender, personality differences, and sociosexual orientation. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 22, 339–360.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bleske-Rechek, A. L., & Buss, D. M. (2001). Opposite-sex friendship: Sex differences and similarities in initiation, selection, and dissolution. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 27, 1310–1323.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bogle, K. A. (2007). Hooking up and the sexual double standard among college students. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Sociological Association, New York.Google Scholar
  6. Carroll, J. L., Volk, K. D., & Hyde, J. S. (1985). Differences between males and females in motives for engaging in sexual intercourse. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 14, 131–139.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Christopher, F., & Cate, R. (1985). Premarital sexual pathways and relationship development. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 2, 271–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coricelli, G., Critchley, H. D., Joffily, M., O’Doherty, J. P., Sirigu, A., & Dolan, R. J. (2005). Regret and its avoidance: A neuroimaging study of choice behavior. Nature Neuroscience, 8, 1255–1262.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dickson, N., Paul, C., Herbison, P., & Silva, P. (1998). First sexual intercourse: Age, coercion, and later regrets reported by a birth cohort. British Medical Journal, 316, 29–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Donohew, R., Zimmerman, R., Cupp, P., Novak, S., Colon, S., & Abell, R. (2000). Sensation seeking, impulsive decision making and risky sex: Implications for risk-taking and design of interventions. Journal of Personality and Individual Differences, 28(6), 1079–1091.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Epstude, K., & Roese, N. J. (2008). The functional theory of counterfactual thinking. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 12, 168–192.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eshbaugh, E., & Gute, G. (2008). Hookups and sexual regret among college women. The Journal of Social Psychology, 148(1), 77–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Farahani, F. K., & Mehryar, A. H. (2011). The role of family in premarital heterosexual relationships among female university students in Tehan. Journal of Family Research, 6(24), 449–468. (In Persian).Google Scholar
  14. Gagnon, J. H. (1977). Human sexualities. Glenview, IL: Scott Foresman.Google Scholar
  15. Gagnon, J. H., & Simon, W. (1973). Sexual conduct: The social sources of human sexuality. Chicago: Aldine.Google Scholar
  16. Grarmaroudi, G. R., Makarem, J., Alavi, S. S., & Abbasi, Z. (2010). Health related risk behaviors among high school students in Tehran, Iran. Payesh, 9(1), 9–13. (in Persian).Google Scholar
  17. Green, S. B., Salkind, N. J., & Akey, T. M. (2008). Using SPSS for Windows and Macintosh: Analyzing and understanding data. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.Google Scholar
  18. Haavio-Mannila, E., Kontula, O., Weinberg, M. S., & Sprecher, S. (1990). Sex, alcohol, and gender: A study of Finnish university students [abstract]. Nordisk Sexologi, 8, 268–281.Google Scholar
  19. Herold, E. S., & Mewhinney, D. M. K. (1993). Gender differences in casual sex and AIDS prevention: A survey of dating bars. Journal of Sex Research, 30, 36–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hill, C. A., & Preston, L. K. (1996). Individual differences in the experience of sexual motivation: Theory and measurement of dispositional sexual motives. The Journal of Sex Research, 33, 27–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Hoffman, V., & Bolton, R. (1997). Reasons for having sex and sexual risk-taking: A study of heterosexual male STD clinic patients. AIDS Care, 9, 285–296.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jokisaari, M. (2003). Regret appraisals, age, and subjective well-being. Journal of Research in Personality, 37, 487–503.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kirkman, M., Rosenthal, D., & Smith, A. M. A. (1998). Adolescent sex and the romantic narrative: Why some young heterosexuals use condoms to prevent pregnancy but not disease. Psychology, Health and Medicine, 3, 357–372.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Klecka, W. R. (1980). Discriminant analysis. Quantitative applications in the Social Sciences Series, No. 19. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Lachenbruch, P. A. (1975). Discriminant analysis. New York: Hafner.Google Scholar
  26. Landman, J. (1993). Regret: The persistence of the possible. New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  27. Mahdavi, P. (2008). Passionate uprisings: Iran’s sexual revolution. California: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  28. Marelich, W. D., & Lundquist, J. (2008). Motivations for sexual intimacy: Development of a needs-based sexual intimacy scale. International Journal of Sexual Health, 20(3), 177–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Meston, C. M., & Buss, D. M. (2007). Why humans have sex. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 36, 77–507.Google Scholar
  30. Mohammad, K., Farahani, F. K., Mohammadi, M. R., Alikhani, S., Zare, M., Tehrani, F. R., et al. (2007). Sexual risk taking behaviors among boys aged 15–18 years in Tehran. Journal of Adolescent Health, 41(4), 407–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Oswalt, S. B., Cameron, K. A., & Koob, J. J. (2005). Sexual regret in college students. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 34, 663–669.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Paul, E. L., & Hayes, K. A. (2002). The casualties of “casual” sex: A qualitative exploration of the phenomenology of college students’ hookups. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships, 19(5), 639–661.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Paul, E. L., McManus, B., & Hayes, K. A. (2000). “Hookups”: Characteristics and correlates of college students’ spontaneous and anonymous sexual experiences. The Journal of Sex Research, 37(1), 76–88.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Piercy, F., Fontes, L. A., Choice, P., & Boudreau, B. (1998). HIV risk and the freedom to act without thinking: Sex and alcohol connections for adolescents on probation. Journal of Child and Adolescent Social Work, 15, 207–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Roese, N. J., Pennington, G. L., Coleman, J., Janicki, M., Li, N. P., & Kenrick, D. T. (2006). Sex differences in regret: All for love or some for lust? Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 32, 770–780.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Roudsari, R. L., Javadnoori, M., Hasanpour, M., Hazavehei, S. M. M., & Taghipour, A. (2013). Socio-cultural challenges to sexual health education for female adolescents in Iran. Iranian Journal of Reproductive Medicine, 11(2), 101–110.Google Scholar
  37. Sawyer, R. G., & Smith, N. G. (1996). A survey of situational factors at first intercourse among college students. American Journal of Health Behavior, 20, 208–217.Google Scholar
  38. Segal, N. L., & Stohs, J. H. (2009). Age at first intercourse in twins reared apart: Genetic influence and life history events. Personality and Individual Differences, 47, 127–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shahidian, H. (1996). Iranian exiles and sexual politics: Issues of of gender relations and identity. Journal of Refugee Studies, 9(1), 43–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Shahidian, H. (1999). Gender and sexuality among immigrant Iranians in Canada. Sexualities, 2(2), 189–222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shapurian, R., & Hojat, M. (1985). Sexual and premarital attitudes of Iranian college students. Psychological Reports, 57, 67–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Suvivuo, P., Tossavainen, K., & Kontula, O. (2008). The role of alcohol in a sexually motivated situation. Health Education, 108(2), 145–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Tolman, D. L., & Higgins, T. E. (1996). How being a good girl can be bad for girls. In N. B. Maglin & D. Perry (Eds.), Bad girls, good girls: Women, sex, and power in the nineties (pp. 205–225). New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Træen, B., & Kvalem, I. L. (1996). Sexual socialization and motives for intercourse among Norwegian adolescents. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 25(3), 289–302.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Ward, L. (2002). Understanding the role of entertainment media in the sexual socialization of American youth: A review of empirical research. Developmental Review, 23, 347–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Zadehmohammadi, A., & Ahmadabadi, Z. (2008). The co-occurrence of risky behaviors among high school adolescents in Tehran. Journal of Family Research, 4(13), 87–100. (In Persian).Google Scholar
  47. Zeelenberg, M. (1999). The use of crying over spilled milk: A note on the rationality and functionality of regret. Philosophical Psychology, 13, 326–340.Google Scholar
  48. Zeelenberg, M., & Breugelmans, S. M. (2008). The role of interpersonal harm in distinguishing regret from guilt. American Psychological Association, 8(5), 589–596.Google Scholar
  49. Zeelenberg, M., van de Bos, K., van Dijk, E., & Pieters, R. (2002). The inaction effect in the psychology of regret. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 82(3), 314–327.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Zohre Ahmadabadi
    • 1
  • Leili Panaghi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Ali Madanipour
    • 2
  • Abbas Sedaghat
    • 3
  • Mandana Tira
    • 3
  • Sara Kamrava
    • 1
  • Gheysar Maleki
    • 1
  1. 1.Family Research InstituteShahid Beheshti UniversityEvin, TehranIran
  2. 2.Cameron UniversityLawtonUSA
  3. 3.Ministry of Health and Medical EducationTehranIran

Personalised recommendations