Geographies of Tolerance: Human Development, Heteronormativity, and Religion
- First Online:
In their work on the human development sequence, Inglehart and Welzel (Modernization, cultural change, and democracy: the human development sequence. Cambridge University Press, New York, 2005) argue that there is a “rising tide” of gender equality across various countries in the system. While the authors propose that the process that holds true for a rising tide in women’s rights is also true for other outgroups including minorities and homosexuals, they do not test their proposed relationship on feelings toward these groups. At the same time, studies on sexuality and tolerance suggest that religious beliefs and government institutions play a significant role in shaping societal attitudes about homosexuality, promulgating beliefs and policies that place homosexuality in a negative light. In the case of government institutions, sexuality may also be framed as a security issue, making homosexuality appear as a threat. The present work performs an empirical test of the mechanisms of the human development sequence on tolerance toward homosexuality, and compares this theory to rival hypotheses regarding the effects of religion and heteronormative policies. Empirical testing using hierarchical linear models shows mixed support for hypotheses drawn from work on the human development sequence, but indicates that religious belief and heteronormativity in government policies have a significant relationship to levels of tolerance.
KeywordsHomosexuality Heteronormativity Religion Modernization theory Security policy
- Alesina, A., Giuliano, P., & Nunn, N. (2010). The origins of gender roles: Women and the plough. Unpublished. http://www.worldvaluessurvey.org/new_index_publications. Accessed July 16, 2012.
- Berlant, L., & Warner, M. (1993). Sex in Public. In S. During (Ed.), The cultural studies reader (pp. 354–370). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10:7. http://pareonline.net/pdf/v10n7.pdf. Accessed March 10, 2014.
- Dalvi, S. (2004). Homosexuality and the European court of human rights: Recent judgments against the United Kingdom and their impact on other signatories to the European convention on human rights. University of Florida Journal of Law and Public Policy, 15(Summer), 467–515.Google Scholar
- Frank, N., Basham, V., Bateman, G., Belkin, A., Canaday, M., Okros, A., et al. (2010). Gays in foreign militaries 2010: A global primer. Santa Barbara, CA: Palm Center.Google Scholar
- Gurr, T. R., Marshall, M. G., Jaggers, K., & Polity IV data v. (2008). http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscr/inscr.htm. Accessed December 15, 2009.
- Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2005). Modernization, cultural change, and democracy: The human development sequence. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Inglehart, R., & Welzel, C. (2009). How development leads to democracy: What we know about modernization. Foreign Affairs, 88(2), 33–48.Google Scholar
- Karimi, F., & Thompson, N. (2014). Uganda’s President Museveni Signs Controversial Anti-Gay Bill Into Law. CNN, Feb. 25 2014. http://www.cnn.com/2014/02/24/world/africa/uganda-anti-gay-bill/. Accessed March 4, 2014.
- Kron, J. (2012). Resentment Toward the West Bolster’s Uganda’s New Anti-Gay bill. The New York Times, Feb. 28, 2012. http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/29/world/africa/ugandan-lawmakers-push-anti-homosexuality-bill-again.html?pagewanted=all. Accessed June 7, 2012.
- Lazaro, F. S. (2012). In Uganda, Anti-Homosexuality Bill’s Re-emergence a Touchy Subject. PBS News Hour, April 5, 2012. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/rundown/2012/04/uganda-anti-homosexuality-bill.html. Accessed June 7, 2012.
- Lazaro, F. S. (2012). In Uganda, Gays Face Growing Social, Legal Hostility. PBS News Hour, April 25, 2012. http://www.pbs.org/newshour/bb/world/jan-june12/uganda_04-05.html. Accessed June 7, 2012.
- Marshall, M. G., Jaggers, K., & Ted Robert Gurr. (2011). Polity IV annual time-series 1800–2012. Polity IV Project, Center for Systemic Peace.Google Scholar
- Palm Center. (2009). Countries that allow military service by openly gay people”. http://www.palmcenter.org/files/active/0/CountriesWithoutBan.pdf. Accessed March 28, 2010.
- Rabe-Hesketh, S., & Skrondal, A. (2005). Multilevel and longitudinal modeling using stata. College Station: Stata Press.Google Scholar
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.Google Scholar
- Saul, H. (2014). Uganda Anti-gay Bill Author David Bahati Says Western Aid Cuts Are a Small Price to Pay. The Independent, Mar. 3 2014. http://www.independent.co.uk/news/world/africa/uganda-antigay-bill-author--david-bahati-says-western-aid-cuts-are-a-small-price-to-pay-9165421.html. Accessed March 4, 2014.
- Welzel, C., & Inglehart, R. (2009). Mass Beliefs in Comparative Politics. In C. Boix & S. C. Stokes (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of comparative politics (pp. 297–316). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- World Values Survey 1981–2008 Official Aggregate v.20090901, 2009. (2005). World Values Survey Association. Aggregate File Producer: ASEP/JDS, Madrid. (www.worldvaluessurvey.org).