Sexuality & Culture

, Volume 17, Issue 3, pp 512–524 | Cite as

From “Gay Marriage Controversy” (2004) to “Endorsement of Same-Sex Marriage” (2012): Framing Bisexuality in the Marriage Equality Discourse

  • Andrea M. Hackl
  • C. Reyn Boyer
  • M. Paz GalupoEmail author
Original Paper


The current study analyzes the evolution of language used to discuss marriage equality in The New York Times between February and May 2004 and February and May 2012. Specifically, the study examines how sexual orientation labels were used as modifiers for “marriage,” “couples,” and “individuals.” Results indicate that the language evolved from a focus on the sexual orientation label gay in 2004 to a more inclusive language, with same-sex as the predominant modifier for marriage and couples in 2012. Further, while the overall language in The New York Times became more inclusive of the Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender community at large, bisexual women and men are still largely absent within the marriage equality discourse.


Same-sex marriage New York Times Bisexuality Gay marriage Marriage equality Sexual orientation 



This work was supported, in part, by a grant from the American Institute of Bisexuality awarded to M. Paz Galupo.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrea M. Hackl
    • 1
  • C. Reyn Boyer
    • 1
  • M. Paz Galupo
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Towson UniversityTowsonUSA

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