Advertisement

Sexuality and Culture

, Volume 7, Issue 3, pp 57–78 | Cite as

Codes of online sexuality: Celebrity, gender and marketing on the web

  • Jacqueline Lambiase
Articles

Abstract

Marketers use the combination of sex and celebrity to sell movies, music, and more. this qualitative project uses content analysis to track sexualized images on the official Web sites and fan sites of 41 celebrities. An official Web site may construct a celebrity’s sexuality as part of overall marketing, with all images as tightly controlled as trademarked images. Over time, these celebrity images become a public sexual iconography. While such images have been studied in other mass media, few studies have scrutinized sexuality on mainstream Web sites. This analysis finds that female musicians are more likely than other celebrities to be represented by sexualized images, and that all types of female celebrities are sexualized more than males. In general, a female celebrity who uses sexuality to promote her public image wears this sexuality like a uniform on both official and fan Web sites.

Keywords

Home Page Official Site Sexualized Image Online Sexuality Empirical Code 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Bauer, M. W. and Gaskell, G. (2000). Qualitative researching with text, image and sound: A practical handbook. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  2. Berger, J. (1972). Ways of seeing. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  3. Bolter, J. D. (1991). Writing space: The computer, hypertext, and the history of writing. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  4. Bret Michaels, plaintiff, and Pamela Anderson Lee, intervenor, v. Internet Entertainment group, Inc. (1998). Netlitigation. Retrieved Feb. 1, 2003 from http://www.netlitigation.com/netlitigation/cases/michaels.htmGoogle Scholar
  5. Burke, K. (1969). A rhetoric of motives. Berkeley: University of California Press. (Original work published)Google Scholar
  6. Butler, J. (1990). Gender trouble: Feminism and the subversion of identity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Butler, J. (1993). Bodies that matter: On the discursive limits of “sex”. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  8. Clerc, S. (1996). Estrogen brigades and “big tits” threads: Media fandom online and off. In L. Cherny and E. R. Weise (eds.), Wired women: Gender and new realities in cyberspace (pp. 73–97) Seattle: Seal Press.Google Scholar
  9. De Voss, D. (2002). Women’s porn site—spaces of fissure and eruption or “I’m a little bit of everything.” Sexuality and Culture 2, 6. 75–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Fine, J. (2003, February 24). Top performers. Advertising age, p. 16.Google Scholar
  11. Fiske, J. (1996). Media matters: race and gender in U.S. politics. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  12. Fraser, B. and Brown, W. J. (2002). Media, celebrities, and social influence: Identification with Elvis Presley. Mass Communication and Society 5, (2.) 183–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Forbes, J. (1996). Disciplining women in contemporary discourses of sexuality. Journal of Gender Studies 5, 2. 177–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Foucault, M. (1978). The history of sexuality: Volume I. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  15. Foucault, M. (1970). The order of things. New York: Pantheon.Google Scholar
  16. Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings, 1972–1977. New York: Pantheon Books.Google Scholar
  17. Goffman, E. (1959). The presentation of self in everyday life. Garden City, NY: Doubleday Press.Google Scholar
  18. Goldman, D. (2001, April 23). consumer republic: Yahoo! surrendered: Porn site is out; so is free choice [Eastern edition] Adweek, 42, 17, p. 12.Google Scholar
  19. Google searches more sites more quickly, delivering the most relevant results. (2003). Retrieved Feb. 1, 2003 from http://www.google.com/technology/ index.htmlGoogle Scholar
  20. Haraway, D. (1991). Simians, cyborgs, and women: The reinvention of nature. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  21. Kilbourne, J. (1999). Can’t buy my love: How advertising changes the way we think and feel. New York: Touchstone.Google Scholar
  22. Lambiase, J. (2003). Sex—Online and in Internet advertising. In T. Reichert & J. Lambiase (eds.), Sex in Advertising: Perspectives on the Erotic Appeal (pp. 247–269). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  23. Lambiase, J, and Reichert, T. (2003). Is there a Maxim effect? Men’s magazine covers “sexed-up” for sales. Unpublished paper.Google Scholar
  24. Lin, C. A. (1998). Uses of sexual appeals in prime-time television commercials. Sex Roles, 38(5/6), 461–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. McMillan, S. (2000). The microscope and the moving target: The challenge of applying content analysis to the World Wide Web. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 77(1), 80–98.Google Scholar
  26. McRae, S. (1996). Coming apart at the seams: Sex, text and the virtual body. In L. Cherny and E. R. Weise (eds.), Wired women: Gender and new realities in cyberspace (pp. 242–264). Seattle: Seal Press.Google Scholar
  27. Milano, A. (1999, September). Compute. Jane Magazine. Retrieved March 5, 2003, from http://www.safesearching.com/alyssamilano/features/ jane_0999.shtmlGoogle Scholar
  28. Ong, W. (1981). Fighting for life: Contest, sexuality, and consciousness. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  29. Pastore, M. (2001). Search engines, browsers still confusing Many Web users. Cyberatlas. Retrieved August 1, 2001 from http://cyberatlas.Internet.com/ bigpicture/traffic_patterns/article/0,,5931_588851,00.htmlGoogle Scholar
  30. Poster, M. (1990). The mode of information: Poststructuralism and social context. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  31. Reichert, T. (2003). The erotic history of advertising Amherst, NY, Prometheus.Google Scholar
  32. Reichert, T., Lambiase, J., Morgan, S., Carstarphen, M., & Zavoina, S. (1999). Beefcake and cheesecake: No matter how you slice it, sexual explicitness in advertising continues to increase. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 76 (1), 7–20.Google Scholar
  33. Schroeder, J. (2002). Visual consumption. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Schroeder, J. (2001). Edouard Manet, Calvin Klein and the strategic use of scandal. In S. Brown and Anthony Patterson (eds.) Imagining marketing: Art, aesthetics, and the avant-garde. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Soley, L. C., Reid, L. N. (1988). Taking it off: Are models in magazine ads wearing less? Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 65 (4), 960–966.Google Scholar
  36. Stempel III, G. H., and Stewart, R. K. (2000). The Internet provides both opportunities and challenges for mass communication researchers. Journalism and Mass Communication Quarterly 77 (3), 541–548.Google Scholar
  37. Stern, B. (2003). Masculinism(s) and the male image: What does it mean to be a man? In T. Reichert & J. Lambiase (eds.), Sex in Advertising: Perspectives on the Erotic Appeal. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  38. Turkle, S. (1984). The second self: Computers and the human spirit. New York: Simon and Schuster.Google Scholar
  39. Twitchell, J. B. (1996). Adcult USA: The triumph of advertising in American culture. New York: Columbia University Press.Google Scholar
  40. van Zoonen, L. (1994). Feminist media studies. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  41. Walker, J. R. (2000). Sex and violence in program promotion. In S. T. Eastman (ed.), Research in media promotion (pp. 101–126). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  42. Weedon, C. (1991) Post-structuralist feminist practice. In D. Morton and M. Zavarzadeh (eds.) Theory/pedagogy/politics: Texts for change (pp. 47–63). Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press.Google Scholar
  43. Williams, J. (1978). Decoding advertisements. New York: Marion Boyers.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jacqueline Lambiase
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Journalism and Mayborn Graduate Institute of JournalismUniversity of North TexasDenton

Personalised recommendations