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Section 21 of the Theft Act 1968 states that ‘(1) a person is guilty of blackmail if, with a view to gain for himself or another or with intent to cause loss to another, he makes any unwarranted demand with menaces; and for this purpose a demand with menaces is unwarranted unless the person making it does so in the belief (a) that he has reasonable grounds for making the demand; and (b) that the use of the menaces is a proper means of reinforcing the demand. (2) The nature of the act or omission demanded is immaterial, and it is also immaterial whether the menaces relate to action to be taken by the person making the demand. (3) A person guilty of blackmail shall on conviction on indictment be liable to imprisonment for a term not exceeding fourteen years.’
In two cases (UK-H12, UK-H13) there is no data available but there had to be at least two perpetrators (one in each case) for the crime to be committed. In all the other cases (UK-H1, UK-H2, UK-H3, UK-H4, UK-H5, UK-H6, UK-H7, UK-H8, UK-H9, UK-H10, UK-H11, UK-H14 and UK-H15) there is evidence of a specific number of criminals involved in extortion. However, given that these criminals often operated as part of a larger group, the figure provided here (46 people) might be an underestimate.
The UK Government Department for Transport defines A roads as ‘major roads intended to provide large-scale transport links within or between areas’ and B roads as ‘roads [that are] intended to connect different areas, and to feed traffic between A roads and smaller roads on the network’ (Department for Transport 2012: 6)
There is no evidence on the immigrant status of the other foreigner victims.
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Country report on extortion racketeering in the hospitality sector – United Kingdom. Trends Organ Crim 23, 289–300 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-019-09361-y