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Mexico’s shifting criminal landscape: changes in gang operation and structure during the past century

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Notes

  1. Luis Astorga, El Siglo de las Drogas: El Narcotráfico, del Porfiriato al Nuevo Milenio, Mexico City: Espasa-Calpe Mexicana, 1996. Page 15.

  2. Ibid.

  3. Astorga, Siglo, 40.

  4. Astorga, Siglo, 26

  5. Astorga, Siglo, 30

  6. Astorga, Siglo, 41.

  7. Noel Maurer, July 21, 2011, “A brief and incomplete history of organized crime in northern Mexico”, The Power and the Money, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://noelmaurer.typepad.com/aab/2010/07/a-brief-history-of-organized-crime-in-northern-mexico.html.

  8. Astorga, Siglo, 64.

  9. Astorga, Siglo, 53.

  10. Astorga, Siglo, 48, 55.

  11. Astorga, Siglo, 41–42.

  12. Diego Enrique Osorno. El Cártel de Sinaloa: Una Historia del Uso Político del Narco. Mexico City: Grijalbo, 2009. Pages 95–104

  13. The best example of such an attack would be the 1994 assassination of PRI presitencial candidate Luis Donaldo Colosio. The murder that was never conclusively solved, but one of the most prominent theories holds the Tijuana Cartel responsible. Another popular version blames the Gulf Cartel.

  14. Astorga, Siglo, 66.

  15. Maurer, “A brief and incomplete history of organized crime in northern Mexico”.

  16. Ibid.

  17. Jack Keroac. On the Road. Penguin Classics: New York, 2003. Pages 275–309.

    Tom Wolfe. The Electric Kool-Aid Acid Test. Picador: New York, 1968. Pages 286–345.

  18. Unsigned timeline, April 2, 2007, “Timeline: America's War on Drugs”, NPR on the web, retrieved on April 14, 2012 from http://www.npr.org/templates/story/story.php?storyId=9252490.

  19. Astorga, Siglo, 122, 124. Operación Cóndor is sometimes used to refer to all of the similar eradication operations of the 1970s, though this essay uses the term to refer only to the 1977 campaign. It also is the name of the concomitant, Chilean-led assassination program targeting South American dissidents, which was unrelated.

  20. Luis Astorga, Undated, “Drug Trafficking in Mexico—Discussion Paper 36”, UNESCO on the web, retrieved on April 15, 2012 from http://www.unesco.org/most/astorga.htm.

  21. Osorno, 161.

  22. Astorga, Siglo, 119, 126. Osorno, 149–162.

  23. Astorga, Siglo, 124.

  24. Astorga, Siglo, 128.

  25. Astorga, Siglo, 126, 27.

  26. Charles Bowden. Down by the River: Drugs, Money, Murder, and Family. New York: Simon & Schuster, 202. Page 146.

  27. Astorga, Siglo, 152

  28. Aimee Rawlins, December 13, 2011, “Mexico’s Drug War”, Council on Foreign Relations Backgrounder, retrieved on April 22, 2012 from http://www.cfr.org/mexico/mexicos-drug-war/p13689.

  29. Astorga, Siglo, 141.

  30. Malcolm Beith. The Last Narco: Inside the Hunt for El Chapo, the World’s Most Wanted Drug Lord. New York: Grove Press, 2010. Page 38

  31. Astorga, Siglo, 151–52.

  32. Ioan Grillo, May 20, 2009, “Autumn of the Capo: The Diary of a Drug Lord”, Time Magazine on the web, retrieved on April 13, 2012 from http://www.time.com/time/world/article/0,8599,1899404,00.html.

  33. Astorga, Siglo, 145. The padrino in a Mexican wedding typically helps with the expenses by paying for specific items used in the ceremony, such as the rings or coins (which are used in the Catholic ceremony in Mexico).

  34. Ibid.

  35. Ricardo Ravelo. Los Capos: Las Narco-Rutas de México. Mexico City: Debolsillo, 2005. Pages 86, 93–94.

  36. Terrence E. Poppa. Drug Lord: A True Story: The Life and Death of a Mexican Kingpin. El Paso: Cinco Puntos Press, 2010. Amazon Kindle. Web. Accessed April 19, 2012.

  37. Luis Astorga. Seguridad, Traficantes, y Militares El Poder y la Sombra. Mexico City: Tusquets Editores 2007. Page 109.

  38. Bowden, 249.

  39. Ricardo Ravelo. Osiel: Vida y Tragedia de un Capo. Mexico City: Grijalbo, 2009. Pages 56, 61.

  40. Ravelo, Osiel, 150.

  41. Jesús Blancornelas. El Cártel. Mexico City: Debolsillo, 2004. Page 252.

  42. Astorga, Seguridad, 109.

  43. Bowden, 156.

  44. Josh Bernstein, March 3, 2011, “The New Mafia”, The Daily on the web, retrieved on April 17, 2012 from http://www.thedaily.com/page/2011/03/02/030311-news-new-mafia-1-4/

  45. Cynthia Rodríguez. Contacto en Italia: El pacto entre Los Zetas y la ‘Ndrangheta. Mexico City: Debate, 2009. The book details a drug network in Italy that purchases from Gulf Cartel representatives in New York City.

    http://articles.cnn.com/2009-09-21/world/africa.drug.cartels_1_drug-cartels-european-market-cocaine?_s=PM:WORLD

  46. Doris Gómora and Marco Muedano, July 22, 2011, “Aumenta 700 % destrucción de laboratorios del narco en 2 años”, El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/primera/37339.html.

  47. Unsigned news summary, January 17, 2012, “Mexican navy seizes huge haul of precursor chemicals”, BBC on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-latin-america-16605690.

    María de la Luz González, May 6, 2010, “Logra Marina mayor decomiso de precursors”, El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/678415.html.

    Unsigned news summary, April 7, 2011, “Decomisan 38 ton. de precursor químico en Colima”, El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/757589.html.

    Unsigned news summary, August 4, 2010, “La Marina mexicana decomisa más de 200 toneladas de precursores químicos”, CNN on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://mexico.cnn.com/nacional/2010/08/04/la-marina-mexicana-decomisa-mas-de-200-toneladas-de-precursores-quimicos.

    Juan José Arreola, July 21, 2011, “Récord: hallan 839.5 ton de químicos para fabricar droga”, El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/780661.html

  48. Víctor Solís, April 14, 2011, “El Chapo toma control del mercado australiano”, El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/759357.html.

    EFE news summary, December 1, 2008, “Tres mexicanos detenidos en una operación contra el narcotráfico en Australia”, El Siglo de Durango on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.elsiglodedurango.com.mx/noticia/191903.tres-mexicanos-detenidos-en-una-operacion-con.html.

    EFE news summary, June 1, 2011, “Cerca de la horca, insiste Malasia en acusar a mexicanos de narco”, Excélsior on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.excelsior.com.mx/index.php?m=nota&id_nota=741811.

  49. Bowden, 151–154.

  50. Blancornelas, page 52–55

  51. Ibid. In El Cártel de Sinaloa, Diego Osorno reports Félix Gallardo’s allegation that he had nothing to do with the handout of territory, but rather that it was carried out by federal police official Guillermo González Calderoni. González Calderoni, a prominent and notoriously corrupt figure during the Salinas presidency, was by most accounts friendly with Félix Gallardo prior to his arrest.

  52. Blancornelas, 197–99.

  53. Blancornelas, 195–96

  54. Jorge Carpizo and Julián Andrade. Asesinato de un Cardenal. Mexico City: Aguilar, 2002. Pages 20–21.

  55. Bowden, 255.

  56. Maurer, “A brief and incomplete history of organized crime in northern Mexico”.

  57. Blancornelas, 285.

  58. Ravelo. Los Capos, 230–240

  59. Ravelo, Osiel, 111–139.

  60. Ravelo, Osiel, 165–193.

  61. Jorge Fernández Menéndez and Víctor Ronquillo. De los Maras a los Zetas: Los Secretos del Narcotráfico, de Colombia a Chicago. Mexico City: Grijalbo, 2006. Page 205.

  62. Julia Preston and Samuel Dillon. Opening Mexico: The Making of a Democracy. New York: Farrar, Straus, and Giroux, 2004. Pages 323–325.

  63. Ravelo, Osiel, 62.

  64. Carpizo and Andrade, 89–96.

  65. Beith, 1–18.

  66. Bowden, 294–296.

  67. James F. Smith and Ken Ellingwood, February 23, 2002, “Mexicans Say Drug Lord May Be Dead”, Los Angeles Times on the web, retrieved on April 21, 2012 from http://articles.latimes.com/2002/feb/23/news/mn-29483.

    Alejandro Gutiérrez. Narcotráfico: El Gran Deasfío de Calderón. Mexico City: Editorial Planeta, 2007. Pages 337–39.

  68. Ravelo, Osiel 77–84, 207–239.

  69. Preston and Dillon, 199, 488–501.

    Roderic Ai Camp. Politics in Mexico: The Democratic Consolidation. New York: Oxford University Press, 2007. Page 206.

  70. Shannon O’Neil, July August 2009, “The Real War in Mexico: How Democracy Can Defeat the Drug Cartels”,

    Foreign Affairs, Volume 88, Number 4.

  71. Eduaro Guerrero Gutiérrez, June 1, 2011, “La Raíz de la Violencia”, Nexos on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.nexos.com.mx/?P=leerarticulo&Article=2099328.

  72. CNN wire staff, June 30, 2011, “Report: Leader of La Linea gang arrested in Mexico”, CNN on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://articles.cnn.com/2011-07-30/world/mexico.drug.arrest_1_mexican-employee-lesley-enriquez-cartel?_s=PM:WORLD.

    Eduardo Alonso, May 23, 2011, “Detienen a 21 de La Mano con Ojos en Edomex”, El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/767436.html

    Unsigned news summary, December 2, 2011, “Aparecen mantas de Los Caballeros Templarios en puentes de Morelia”, Milenio on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.milenio.com/cdb/doc/noticias2011/fbcd660be8c1b78f6448bb895747863b

    Notimex news summary, February 4, 2012, “Detienen a ‘El Marrufo’, presunto lugarteniente de ‘El Chapo’ Guzmán”, La Jornada de Michoacán on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.lajornadamichoacan.com.mx/2012/02/04/detienen-a-el-marrufo-presunto-lugarteniente-de-el-chapo-guzman/.

    Francisco Gómez, July 20, 2009, ““Linces”, el brazo armado del cártel de Juárez”, El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/613359.html

    Tracy Wilkinson and Cecilia Sanchez, March 5, 2009, “20 killed in riot at Ciudad Juarez prison”, Los Angeles Times on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://articles.latimes.com/2009/mar/05/world/fg-mexico-prison-riot5

    El Universal news summary, July 5, 2011, “Detienen a seis presuntos integrantes de “Los Mexicles””, Yahoo news, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://mx.noticias.yahoo.com/detienen-seis-presuntos-integrantes-mexicles-232300668.html

    Jorge Becerril, February 10, 2012, “Detienen al número dos de “La Barredora” en Acapulco”, Milenio on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.milenio.com/cdb/doc/noticias2011/0d77ad322dcad7278a17d3b6ee2997b6

  73. Astorga, Seguridad, 280–81.

    Tim Steller, March 7, 2011, “The word “cartel” loses meaning in drug war”, Arizona Star on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://azstarnet.com/news/blogs/senor-reporter/article_1b7213e0-48e5-11e0-9be0-001cc4c002e0.html

  74. Carlos Benavides y Francisco Gómez, October 27, 2008, “Compró el narco a jefes de la SIEDO”, El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 22, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/primera/31864.html

  75. AFP news summary, October 27, 2008, “Operación limpieza” en México, retrieved on April 22, 2012 from http://www.elnuevodiario.com.ni/internacionales/30804

  76. Unsigned news summary, June 16, 2011, “Captura la Federal al brazo armado del cártel de Juárez”, Excélsio on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.excelsior.com.mx/index.php?m=nota&id_nota=745309

    Francisco García Davish and Isaac M. Reyes, July 17, 2011, “Los Caballeros Templarios: La Familia, reloaded”, M Semanal on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.msemanal.com/node/4363.

  77. Unsigned news summary, September 14, 2009, “Encarcelan 124 policías de Hidalgo ligados a Zetas”, El Universal on the web. Retrieved on April 22, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/notas/626532.html.

    Isabel, Zumudio, March 3, 2010, “Detienen al menos a 90 policías municipales en Veracruz”, Milenio on the web. Retrieved on April 22, 2012 from http://www.milenio.com/node/401926.

    David Carrizales, et al., June 2, 2010, “En operativo cooperativo, detienen en NL a 36 policías municipales”, La Jornade on the web. Retrieved on April 22, 2012 from http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2009/06/02/index.php?section=politica&article=004n1pol.

    Lepoldo Ramos, et al., September 9, 2010, “Detienen a 35 policías de Torreón que daban protección a narcotraficantes”, La Jornade on the web. Retrieved on April 22, 2012 from http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2008/09/09/index.php?section=politica&article=012n1pol.

  78. According to the most recent National Addiction Survey, consumption has increased for virtually all drugs. Notably, for cocaine, usage had doubled since the previous poll, in 2002.

    “Encuesta Nacional de Adicciones 2008”, Secretaría de la Salud, downloaded on April 22, 2012 from http://www.conadic.salud.gob.mx/pie/ena2008.html.

  79. Lorenzo Encinas, October 24, 2010, “Los nuevos sicarios: vive rápido y muere joven”, M Semanal on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.libertad-oaxaca.info/politica/1423-los-carteles-utilizan-a-cinco-mil-pandillas.html

  80. Unsigned news summary, January 7, 2012, “Continúa la limpia de narcomenudistas en la ciudad y el valle”, La Policíaca, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.lapoliciaca.com/nota-roja/continua-la-limpia-de-narcomenudistas-en-la-ciudad-y-el-valle/. Stories such as this one are quite common.

  81. Marcos Muedano, January 12, 2012, “Por crimen, 11 % más asesinatos en 2011,” El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 16, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/192833.html.

  82. Ibid.

  83. Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2011”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

    Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2007”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

  84. Astorga, Seguridad, 111–114.

  85. Beith, 139–150.

  86. Ricardo Cayuela Gally, July 10, 2011 “La Batalla de Monterrey”, Letras Libres online, Retrieved on April 21, 2012 from http://www.letraslibres.com/print/101450.

  87. Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2011”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

    Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2009”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

  88. Elyssa Pachico, June 16, 2011, “Mexico Defense of Kingpin Strategy Falls Short:, InSight Crime on the web, retrieved on April 22, 2012 from http://www.insightcrime.org/insight-latest-news/item/1092-mexico-defense-of-kingpin-strategy-falls-short

  89. Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2009”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

    Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2010”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

  90. Alejandro Poiré and María Teresa Martínez, May 1, 2011, “La caída de los capos no multiplica la violencia: El caso de Nacho Coronel”, Nexos on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.nexos.com.mx/?P=leerarticulo&Article=2099273.

  91. Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2011”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

    Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2010”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

  92. Rubén Torres, January 24, 2011, “La Familia Michoacana y su supuesto retiro”, El Economista on the web, http://eleconomista.com.mx/seguridad-publica/2011/01/24/familia-anuncia-su-disolucion.

  93. Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2011”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

    Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2010”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

    Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2009”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

  94. María de la Luz González, September 2, 2010, “‘La guerra la comenzó El Chapo’”, El Universal on the web. Retrieved on April 22, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/180154.html.

  95. Eduardo Guerrero Gutiérrez, February 1, 2012, “2011: La dispersión de la violencia”, Nexos on the web, retrieved on April 16, 2012 from http://www.nexos.com.mx/?P=leerarticulo&Article=2102543.

  96. Miguel Ángel Sosa and Óscar Gutiérrez, March 29, 2011, “‘Polleros’ ganan 6.6 mil mdd: ONU”, El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 16, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/184424.html.

    Sara Llana Miller, April 8, 2012, “Home again in Mexico: Illegal immigration hits net zero”, Christian Science Monitor on the web, retrieved on April 16, 2012 from http://www.csmonitor.com/World/Americas/2012/0408/Home-again-in-Mexico-Illegal-immigration-hits-net-zero/%28page%29/2

    William Booth and Nick Miroff, July 1, 2011, “Violence stemming migrant flow to U.S.”, Washington Post on the web, retrieved on April 16, 2012 from http://www.washingtonpost.com/world/americas/violence-stemming-migrant-flow-to-us/2011/06/28/AGhWIptH_story.html

    The UN did not publish their methodology, and clearly estimates of a hidden criminal industry are hard to definitively prove or refute. In any event, the back-of-the-envelope sketch that suggests the UN is overestimating the total is as follows: in 2010, an estimated 368,000 Mexicans left the country, the majority of them undocumented migrants heading to the United States. If, say, 300,000 Mexicans were joined by another 300,000 Central American migrants crossing illegally into the United States, and all 600,000 thousand of them paid a coyote fee of $4,000, which is on the high end of reported fees, the total revenues would be $2.4 billion. Which is to say, clearly human trafficking is a substantial criminal industry, but the assumptions needed to arrive at a sum of $6.6 billion seem to be at odds with reported migratory flows and coyote fees.

  97. Alejandro Hope, September 1, 2011, “¿Qué fumaron mientras medían?”, Nexos on the web, retrieved on April 18, 2012 from http://www.nexos.com.mx/?P=leerarticulo&Article=2099494.

  98. Aurora Vega, March 19, 2012, “Petróleos Méxicanos ubica 5 mil tomas clandestinas”, Excélsior on the web, retrieved on April 18, 2012 from http://excelsior.com.mx/index.php?m=nota&id_nota=819530&seccion=seccion-nacional&cat=1.

  99. Keith Humphreys, October 2, 2011, “Mapping the Revenue of Mexico’s Organized Crime Organizations”, The Reality-Based Community, retrieved on April 21, 2012 from http://www.samefacts.com/2011/10/crime-control/mapping-the-revenue-of-mexicos-organized-crime-organizations/.

  100. Andrea Merlos, September 7, 2010, “El secuestro se triplicó en el país en 5 años”, El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/primera/35502.html.

  101. Carlos Benavides and Francisco Gómez, February 22, 2009, “Las extorsiones se disparan en el país”, El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 16, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/primera/32531.html

    Unsigned info sheet, “Extorsión Telefónica,” Consejo para la ley y los derechos humanos, A.C., retrieved on April 16, 2012 from http://www.mexicodenuncia.org/extorsion.html.

  102. Rubén Villapando, June 14, 2011, "Pagan protección 80 % de empresas en Juárez", La Jornada on the web, retrieved on February 19, 2013, from http://www.jornada.unam.mx/2011/06/14/estados/035n3est.

  103. Marcos Muedano, January 12, 2012, “Por crimen, 11 % más asesinatos en 2011,” El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 16, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/192833.html.

    Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2007”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

  104. Marcos Muedano, January 12, 2012, “Por crimen, 11 % más asesinatos en 2011,” El Universal on the web, retrieved on April 16, 2012 from http://www.eluniversal.com.mx/nacion/192833.html.

    Unsigned report, “Incidencia delictiva Nacional y por Estado 2010”, Secretario Ejecutivo del Sistema Nacional de Seguridad Pública, downloaded on April 16, 2012 from http://www.secretariadoejecutivo.gob.mx/es/SecretariadoEjecutivo/Incidencia_Delictiva_Nacional_fuero_comun.

  105. Alejandro Hope, January 16, 2012, “Algo más sobre las cifras de muertos”, Animal Político, Plata o Plomo blog, retrieved April 20, 2012 from http://www.animalpolitico.com/blogueros-plata-o-plomo/2012/01/16/algo-mas-sobre-las-cifras-de-muertos/.

  106. Blancornelas, 284–287. Bowden, 248.

  107. Dudley Althaus and Dane Schiller, April 18, 2012, “Drug lord ”El Chapo“ declares war on Zetas”, Houston Chronicle on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.chron.com/news/houston-texas/article/Drug-lord-El-Chapo-declares-war-on-Zetas-3492866.php.

    Menéndez and Ronquillo, 241–248.

  108. Rubén Mosso, January 1, 2012, “‘Los Zetas’ dominan más territorios que ‘El Chapo’”, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.milenio.com/cdb/doc/noticias2011/8be95f9bc8f34edd9ba2735fc2f1f4a8.

  109. Howard Campbell. Excerpt from Drug War Zone: Frontline Dispatches from the Streets of El Paso and Juárez. Accessed on April 20, 2012 from http://www.utexas.edu/utpress/excerpts/excamdru.html.

  110. Ravelo, Los Capos, 19.

  111. Menéndez and Ronquillo, 288.

  112. Aurora Vega, April 18, 2011, “El Kilo ‘desobedeció’ la orden de reducir la violencia”, Excélsior on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.excelsior.com.mx/index.php?m=nota&id_nota=730642

  113. Elyssa Pachico, March 14, 2012, “Did the Zetas Force US Agent’s Killer to Surrender?”, InSight Crime on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://insightcrime.org/insight-latest-news/item/2348-did-the-zetas-force-us-agents-killer-to-surrender.

    Arturo Rodríguez García, February 28, 2012, “Historias de sangre,” Proceso on the web, retrieved on April 20, 2012 from http://www.proceso.com.mx/?p=299594

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Corcoran, P. Mexico’s shifting criminal landscape: changes in gang operation and structure during the past century. Trends Organ Crim 16, 306–328 (2013). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12117-013-9190-8

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Keywords

  • Cocaine
  • Organize Crime
  • Mexico City
  • Drug Trafficking
  • Criminal Group