The “right to health” is increasingly enshrined in national constitutions around the world—present today in a slight majority of written constitutions. Whether this trend is good, bad, or meaningless is considerably debated. Contrary to skeptics’ worries, this study finds empirical evidence of a positive role of the right to health in the production of population health. Estimating the most widely promulgated theories of the economic and social determinants of health, and the role of electoral democracy, provides a foundation from which to evaluate the effect of the right to health. This study assembles and analyzes data for 144 countries between 1970 and 2010 and finds that, controlling for these factors, a constitutional right to health contributes significantly to wellbeing. Assembled quantitative and case-study evidence both support the idea that institutional environments shaped by a right to health encourage more and better delivery of health services, which in part account for positive impact on health outcomes. These results suggest that focusing research on political institutions primarily on democratic participation rights ignores important impacts of “entitlement” rights on norms and actors in health policy-making. Overall, the right to health is both an important contextual factor for health research and meaningful institutional innovation.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
The Commission on Social Determinants of Health perhaps best embodies these conflicting notions as it nods to the use of a rights-based framework for health equity, yet does not consider the effect of constitutions or formalizing those rights on health equity and does not include instantiating rights among its 60 formal recommendations.
Legal system classification coded Muslim, civil law, common law, or civil/common law mixed based on University of Ottawa JuriGlobe (University of Ottawa).
Acemoglu D, Johnson S, Robinson JA. Institutions as a fundamental cause of long-run growth. In: Aghion P, Durlauf S, editors. Handbook of economic growth. Amsterdam: Elsevier; 2005. p. 385–472.
Acemoglu D, Robinson JA. Economic origins of dictatorship and democracy. Cambridge University Press; 2005.
Achen CH. Why lagged dependent variables can suppress the explanatory power of other independent variables. Annual Meeting, Political Methodology Section of the American Political Science Association, Chicago; 2000.
Ahmad OB, Lopez AD, Inoue M. The decline in child mortality: a reappraisal. Bull World Health Organ. 2000;78:1175–91.
Alesina A, Baqir R, Easterly W. Public goods and ethnic divisions. Q J Econ. 1999;114(4):1243–84.
Alesina A, Devleeschauwer A, Easterly W, Kurlat S, Wacziarg R. Fractionalization. J Econ Growth. 2003;8(2):155–94.
Alesina A, Özler S, Roubini N, Swagel P. Political instability and economic growth. J Econ Growth. 1996;1(2):189–211.
Backman G, Hunt P, Khosla R, Jaramillo-Strouss C, Fikre BM, Rumble C, et al. Health systems and the right to health: an assessment of 194 countries. Lancet. 2008;372(9655):2047–85.
Baker BK. ACTA-risks of third-party enforcement for access to medicines. Am Univ Int Law Rev. 2010;26:579.
de Barcellos AP. Sanitation rights, public law litigation, and inequality: a case study from Brazil. Health Hum Rights. 2014;16:2.
Beck N, Katz JN. What to do (and not to do) with time-series cross-section data. Am Polit Sci Rev. 1995;89(03):634–47.
Berger J. Litigating for social justice in post-apartheid South Africa: a focus on health and education. In: Gauri V, Brinks DM, editors. Courting social justice. Judicial enforcement of social and economic rights in the developing world. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2008. p. 38–99.
Besley T, Kudamatsu M. Health and democracy. Am Econ Rev. 2006;96(2):313–8.
Beyrer C, Villar JC, Suwanvanichkij V, Singh S, Baral SD, Mills EJ. Neglected diseases, civil conflicts, and the right to health. Lancet. 2007;370(9587):619–27.
Biehl J, Amon JJ, Socal MP, Petryna A. Between the court and the clinic: lawsuits for medicines and the right to health in Brazil. Health Hum Rights Int J. 2012;14(1).
Biehl J, Petryna A, Gertner A, Amon JJ, Picon PD. Judicialisation of the right to health in Brazil. Lancet. 2009;373(9682):2182–4.
Biggs B, King L, Basu S, Stuckler D. Is wealthier always healthier? The impact of national income level, inequality, and poverty on public health in Latin America. Soc Sci Med. 2010;71(2):266–73.
De Boef S, Keele L. Taking time seriously. Am J Polit Sci. 2008;52(1):184–200.
Bradshaw D, Nanna N. Health status. In: South African Health Review 2003/04 [Internet]. Durban: Health Systems Trust; 2004. http://www.hst.org.za/publications/south-african-health-review-200304
Braveman P, Egerter S, Williams DR. The social determinants of health: coming of age. Annu Rev Public Health. 2011;32:381–98.
Brinks DM, Gauri V. The law’s majestic equality? The distributive impact of judicializing social and economic rights. Perspect Polit. 2014;12(02):375–93.
Brunetti A, Kisunko G, Weder B. Institutional obstacles to doing business: region-by-region results from a worldwide survey of the private sector. World Bank Publications; 1997.
Burgess SR. Beyond instrumental politics: the new institutionalism, legal rhetoric, & judicial supremacy. Polity. 1993;445–59.
Caldwell JC. Routes to low mortality in poor countries. Popul Dev Rev. 1986;171–220.
Caldwell JC. Cultural and social factors influencing mortality levels in developing countries. Ann Am Acad Pol Soc Sci. 1990;510(1):44–59.
Cepeda-Espinosa MJ. Judicial activism in a violent context: the origin, role, and impact of the colombian constitutional court. Wash Univ Glob Stud Law Rev. 2004;3:529.
Chang H-J. Institutions and economic development: theory, policy and history. J Instit Econ. 2011;7(04):473–98.
Chang H-J, Evans P. The role of institutions in economic change. Reimagining growth: towards a renewal of development theory. London: Zed; 2005.
Chapman AR. Conceptualizing the right to health: a violations approach. Tenn Law Rev. 1997;65:389.
Chigwedere P, Seage III GR, Gruskin S, Lee T-H, Essex M. Estimating the lost benefits of antiretroviral drug use in South Africa. JAIDS J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008;49(4):410–5.
Cleland JG, Van Ginneken JK. Maternal education and child survival in developing countries: the search for pathways of influence. Soc Sci Med. 1988;27(12):1357–68.
Competition Commission of South Africa. Settlement Agreement, Hazel Tau v. Glaxo Smith Kline [Internet]. Case 2002 Sep 226. 2003. http://www.tac.org.za/Documents/DrugCompaniesCC/TAU-GSK-Settlement-20031209.doc. Accessed 21 Dec 2013
Competition Commission of South Africa. TAC v. MSD Ltd and Merck & Co. and related companies. 2007.
Constitutional Court of Colombia. SU-480. 1997.
Constitutional Court of Colombia. SU-225/98. 1998.
Constitutional Court of Colombia. T-1132. 2001.
Constitutional Court of Colombia. T-760. 2008.
Constitutional Court of South Africa. Minister of health and others v treatment action campaign and others. 2002. p. 721.
Coovadia H, Jewkes R, Barron P, Sanders D, McIntyre D. The health and health system of South Africa: historical roots of current public health challenges. Lancet. 2009;374(9692):817–34.
CSDH. Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Final Report of the Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2008
Cutler DM, Deaton AS, Lleras-Muney A. The determinants of mortality. J Econ Perspect. 2006;20(3):97–120.
Dahl RA. Decision-making in a democracy: the supreme court as a national policy-maker. J Public Law. 1957;6:279.
Daniels N. Is there a right to health care and, if so, what does it encompass? In: Kuhse H, Singer PW, editors. Companion Bioeth. Wiley-Blackwell; 2001. pp. 362–73.
Deaton A. Health, inequality, and economic development. J Econ Lit. 2003;41(1):113–58.
Deaton A. The great escape: health, wealth, and the origins of inequality. Princeton University Press; 2013.
Defensoría del Pueblo. La tutela y el derecho a la salud 2012. 2013.
Easterly W. The middle class consensus and economic development. J Econ Growth. 2001;6(4):317–35.
Englebert P. Solving the mystery of the AFRICA dummy. World Dev. 2000;28(10):1821–35.
Epp CR. The rights revolution: lawyers, activists, and supreme courts in comparative perspective. Cambridge University Press; 1998.
Epp CR. Making rights real: activists, bureaucrats, and the creation of the legalistic state. University of Chicago Press; 2010.
Escobar M-L, Giedion U, Giuffrida A, Glassman AL. From few to many: ten years of health insurance expansion in Colombia. Inter-American Development Bank and Brookings Institution; 2010.
Evans P. Population Health and development: an institutional-cultural approach to capacity expansion. Success. Soc. Inst. Cult. Affect Health. Cambridge University Press; 2009.
Evans P, Sewell Jr WH. Neoliberalism: policy regimes, international regimes, and social effects. In: Hall PA, Lamont M, editors. Soc. Resil. Neoliberal Era. Cambridge University Press; 2013. p. 35–68.
Farmer P. Pathologies of power: health, human rights, and the new war on the poor. University of California Press; 2005.
Ferraz OLM. The right to health in the courts of Brazil: worsening health inequities? Health Hum. Rights. 2009;33–45.
Filmer D, Pritchett L. The impact of public spending on health: does money matter? Soc Sci Med. 1999;49(10):1309–23.
Forman L. From TRIPS-Plus to rights-plus? Exploring right to health impact assessment of trade-related intellectual property rights through the Thai experience. Asian J WTO Int Health Law Policy. 2012;7(2):347–75.
Gakidou E, Cowling K, Lozano R, Murray CJ. Increased educational attainment and its effect on child mortality in 175 countries between 1970 and 2009: a systematic analysis. Lancet. 2010;376(9745):959–74.
Galea S. Urbanization, urbanicity, and health. J Urban Health. 2002;79(1):S1–12.
Gauri V, Brinks DM. Courting social justice: judicial enforcement of social and economic rights in the developing world. Cambridge University Press Cambridge; 2008.
Geffen N. Debunking delusions: the inside story of the Treatment Action Campaign. Jacana Media; 2010.
Gerdtham U-G, Jönsson B. International comparisons of health expenditure: theory, data and econometric analysis. Handb Health Econ. 2000;1:11–53.
Gerring J, Thacker SC, Alfaro R. Democracy and human development. J Polit. 2012;74(01):1–17.
Ginsburg T, Melton J, Elkins Z, Leetaru K. On the Interpretability of law: lessons from the decoding of national constitutions. Br. J. Polit. Sci. 2012;1–25.
Ginsburg T, Moustafa T. Rule by law: the politics of courts in authoritarian regimes. Cambridge University Press Cambridge; 2008.
Gloppen S, Wilson BM, Gargarella R, Skaar E, Kinander M. Courts and power in Latin America and Africa. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2010.
Godoy A. Of Medicines and markets: intellectual property and human rights in the Free Trade Era. Stanford University Press; 2013.
Gruskin S. What are health and human rights? Lancet. 2004;363(9405):329.
Haggard S, Kaufman RR. Development, democracy and welfare states: Latin America, East Asia, and Eastern Europe. Princeton University Press; 2008.
Hall PA, Lamont M. Successful societies: how institutions and culture affect health. Cambridge University Press; 2009.
Hall PA, Taylor RC. Political science and the three new institutionalisms*. Polit Stud. 1996;44(5):936–57.
Hatt LE, Waters HR. Determinants of child morbidity in Latin America: a pooled analysis of interactions between parental education and economic status. Soc Sci Med. 2008;62(2):375–86.
Heywood M. South Africa’s treatment action campaign: combining law and social mobilization to realize the right to health. J Hum Rights Pract. 2009;1(1):14–36.
High Court of South Africa. Pharmaceutical manufacturers association of south Africa v. President of the Republic of South Africa. 1999.
Hirschl R. Towards juristocracy: the origins and consequences of the new constitutionalism. Harvard University Press; 2004.
Hirschl R, Rosevear E. Constitutional law meets comparative politics: socio-economic rights and political realities. In: Campbell T, Ewing KD, Tomkins A, editors. Legal protection of human rights skeptical essays. Oxford: Oxford University Press; 2011. p. 207–28.
Hitiris T, Posnett J. The determinants and effects of health expenditure in developed countries. J Health Econ. 1992;11(2):173–81.
Hoffmann F, Bentes F. Accountability for social and economic rights in Brazil. In: Gauri V, Brinks DM, editors. Court. Soc. Justice Judic. Enforc. Soc. Econ. Rights Dev. World. Cambridge University Press; 2008. p. 100–45.
Horowitz DL. The courts and social policy. Brookings Institution Press; 1977.
Huber E, Stephens JD. Development and crisis of the welfare state: parties and policies in global markets. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press; 2001.
Huber E, Stephens JD. Democracy and the left: social policy and inequality in Latin America. Chicago: University Of Chicago Press; 2012.
Ignatieff M. Human rights as politics and idolatry. Princeton University Press; 2011.
James SL, Gubbins P, Murray CJ, Gakidou E. Developing a comprehensive time series of GDP per capita for 210 countries from 1950 to 2015. Popul Health Metrics. 2012;10:12.
Jenkins SP. World income inequality databases: an assessment of WIID and SWIID. Institute for Social & Economic Research; 2014 Sep.
De Jong JT. A public health framework to translate risk factors related to political violence and war into multi-level preventive interventions. Soc Sci Med. 2010;70(1):71–9.
Judge K, Mulligan J-A, Benzeval M. Income inequality and population health. Soc Sci Med. 1998;46(4):567–79.
Kaufmann D, Kraay A, Mastruzzi M. Governance matters III: governance indicators for 1996, 1998, 2000, and 2002. World Bank Econ Rev. 2004;18(2):253–87.
Kersh R, Morone JA. Obesity, courts, and the new politics of public health. J Health Polit Policy Law. 2005;30(5):839–68.
Kim JY, Farmer P, Porter ME. Redefining global health-care delivery. Lancet. 2013;382(9897):1060–9.
Koh HH. Why do nations obey international law? Yale Law J. 1997;106:2599.
Krieger N. Theories for social epidemiology in the 21st century: an ecosocial perspective. Int J Epidemiol. 2001;30(4):668–77.
Krikorian G. The politics of patents: conditions of implementation of public health policy in Thailand. Politics of intellectual property: contestation over the ownership, use, and control of knowledge and information. Cheltenham, Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. 2009; pp. 29–56.
Landau D. The reality of social rights enforcement. Harv Int Law J. 2012;53(1):190–247.
Lena HF, London B. The political and economic determinants of health outcomes: a cross-national analysis. Int J Health Serv. 1993;23(3):585–602.
Lieberman ES. Ethnic politics, risk, and policy-making a cross-national statistical analysis of government responses to HIV/AIDS. Comp Polit Stud. 2007;40(12):1407–32.
Lieberman ES. Boundaries of contagion: how ethnic politics have shaped government responses to AIDS. Princeton University Press; 2009.
Maldonado DB, editor. Constitutionalism of the Global South: The Activist Tribunals of India, South Africa, and Colombia. Cambridge University Press; 2013.
Maleche A, Day E. Right to health encompasses right to access essential generic medicines: challenging the 2008 anti-counterfeit Act in Kenya. Health Hum Rights. 2014;16:2.
Mann J, Gruskin S, Grodin MA, Annas GJ. Health and human rights. Routledge New York; 1999.
March JG, Olsen JP. Elaborating the “New Institutionalism.” Oxf. Handb. Polit. Inst. Oxford. University Press; 2008.
Marmot M, Friel S, Bell R, Houweling TA, Taylor S, Commission on Social Determinants of Health. Closing the gap in a generation: health equity through action on the social determinants of health. Lancet. 2008;372(9650):1661–9.
Marshall MG. Major episodes of political violence, 1946–2013 [Internet]. Center for Systemic Peace; 2014. http://www.systemicpeace.org/inscrdata.html. Accessed 24 Apr 2015
Marshall MG, Jaggers K. Polity IV Project: political regime characteristics and transitions, 1800–2011. 2013 [Internet]. http://www.systemicpeace.org/polity/polity4.htm
McGuire JW. Wealth, health, and democracy in East Asia and Latin America. New York: Cambridge University Press; 2010.
Meier BM, Brugh KN, Halima Y. Conceptualizing a human right to prevention in global HIV/AIDS policy. Public Health Ethics. 2012;5(3):263–82.
Meier BM, Yamin AE. Right to health litigation and HIV/AIDS policy. J Law Med Ethics. 2011;39(s1):81–4.
De Mesquita BB, Morrow JD, Siverson RM, Smith A. Political institutions, policy choice and the survival of leaders. Br J Polit Sci. 2002;559–90.
Michelman FI. Socioeconomic rights in constitutional law: explaining America away. Int J Const Law. 2008;6(3-4):663–86.
Montalvo JG, Reynal-Querol M. Ethnic diversity and economic development. J Dev Econ. 2005;76(2):293–323.
Moon BE, Dixon WJ. Politics, the state, and basic human needs: a cross-national study. Am J Polit Sci. 1985;661–94.
Muralidhar S. India. In: Langford M, editor. Soc. Rights Jursiprudence. Cambridge University Press; 2008. p. 102–24.
Navarro V, Muntaner C, Borrell C, Benach J, Quiroga Á, Rodríguez-Sanz M, et al. Politics and health outcomes. Lancet. 2006;368(9540):1033–7.
Nelson JM. Elections, democracy, and social services. Stud Comp Int Dev. 2007;41(4):79–97.
North DC. Institutions, institutional change and economic performance. Cambridge university press; 1990.
North DC, Weingast BR. Constitutions and commitment: the evolution of institutions governing public choice in seventeenth-century England. J Econ Hist. 1989;49(04):803–32.
O’Connell P. The human right to health in an age of market hegemony. In: Harrington J, Stuttaford M, editors. Global health and human rights: legal and philosophical perspectives. Routledge; 2010. p. 190.
Parks RW. Efficient estimation of a system of regression equations when disturbances are both serially and contemporaneously correlated. J Am Stat Assoc. 1967;62(318):500–9.
Pedersen D. Political violence, ethnic conflict, and contemporary wars: broad implications for health and social well-being. Soc Sci Med. 2002;55(2):175–90.
Peerenboom R, Ginsburg T. Law and development of middle-income countries: avoiding the middle-income trap. Cambridge University Press; 2013.
Plümper T, Troeger VE, Manow P. Panel data analysis in comparative politics: linking method to theory. Eur J Polit Res. 2005;44(2):327–54.
La Porta R, Lopez-de-Silanes F, Shleifer A, Vishny R. The quality of government. J Law Econ Organ. 1999;15(1):222–79.
Powell-Jackson T, Basu S, Balabanova D, McKee M, Stuckler D. Democracy and growth in divided societies: a health-inequality trap? Soc Sci Med. 2011;73(1):33–41.
Preston SH. The changing relation between mortality and level of economic development. Popul Stud. 1975;29(2):231–48.
Pritchett L, Viarengo M. Explaining the cross-national time series variation in life expectancy: income, women’s education shifts and what else? United Nations Development Programme; 2010.
Przeworski A, Alvarez ME, Cheibub JA, Limongi F. Democracy and development: political institutions and well-being in the world, 1950-1990. Cambridge University Press; 2000.
Rajaratnam JK, Marcus JR, Flaxman AD, Wang H, Levin-Rector A, Dwyer L, et al. Neonatal, postneonatal, childhood, and under-5 mortality for 187 countries, 1970–2010: a systematic analysis of progress towards Millennium Development Goal 4. Lancet. 2010;375(9730):1988–2008.
Rajkumar AS, Swaroop V. Public spending and outcomes: does governance matter? J Dev Econ. 2008;86(1):96–111.
Reed WR, Webb R. The PCSE Estimator is Good--Just Not As Good As You Think. J Time Ser Econom. 2010;2(1).
Reed WR, Ye H. Which panel data estimator should I use? Appl Econ. 2011;43(8):985–1000.
Revelo-Rebolledo J. Interview. 2013.
Rodgers GB. Income and inequality as determinants of mortality: an international cross-section analysis. Popul Stud. 1979;33(2):343–51.
Rodríguez-Garavito C. Beyond the courtroom: the impact of judicial activism on socioeconomic rights in Latin America. Tex Law Rev. 2010;89:1669.
Rodrik D. Second-best institutions. Am Econ Rev. 2008;98(2):100–4.
Ross M. Is democracy good for the poor? Am J Polit Sci. 2006;50(4):860–74.
Ruger JP. Democracy and health. QJM. 2005;98(4):299–304.
Ruger JP. Toward a theory of a right to health: capability and incompletely theorized agreements. Yale J Law Humanit. 2006;18:273.
Ruger JP. Health, health care, and incompletely theorized agreements: a normative theory of health policy decision making. J Health Polit Policy Law. 2007;32(1):51–87.
Ruger JP. Health and social justice. Oxford University Press; 2010.
Sachs JD. Macroeconomics and health: investing in health for human development. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2001.
Sachs JD, McArthur JW. The millennium project: a plan for meeting the millennium development goals. Lancet. 2005;365(9456):347–53.
Scheppele KL. A realpolitik defense of social rights. Tex Law Rev 2004.
Scheppele KL. Democracy by judiciary: or, why courts can be more democratic than parliaments. Rethink. Rule Law Communism. 2005.
Semyonov M, Lewin-Epstein N, Maskileyson D. Where wealth matters more for health: the wealth–health gradient in 16 countries. Soc Sci Med. 2013;81:10–7.
Sen A. Development as freedom. Oxford Paperbacks; 2001.
Sen A. Elements of a theory of human rights. Philos Public Aff. 2004;32(4):315–56.
Sen A. Why and how is health a human right? Lancet. 2008;372(9655):2010–0.
Shandra JM, Shandra CL, London B. Do non-governmental organizations impact health? A cross-national analysis of infant mortality. Int J Comp Sociol. 2010;51(1-2):137–64.
Shankar S, Mehta P. Courts and Socioeconomic Rights in India. In: Brinks DM, Gauri V, editors. Court. Soc. Justice. Cambridge University Press; 2008. pp. 146–82.
Shen C, Williamson JB. Child mortality, women’s status, economic dependency, and state strength: a cross-national study of less developed countries. Soc Forces. 1997;76(2):667–700.
Shen C, Williamson JB. Maternal mortality, women’s status, and economic dependency in less developed countries: a cross-national analysis. Soc Sci Med. 1999;49(2):197–214.
Smith RA, Siplon PD. Drugs into bodies: global AIDS treatment activism. Praeger Publishers; 2006.
Smith RM. Political jurisprudence, the “new institutionalism”, and the future of public law. Am Polit Sci Rev. 1988;82(01):89–108.
Solar O, Irwin A. A conceptual framework for action on the social determinants of health. Geneva: World Health Organization; 2010.
Solomon PH. Courts and judges in authoritarian regimes. World Polit. 2007;60(01):122–45.
De Soto H. The mystery of capital: Why capitalism triumphs in the West and fails everywhere else. Basic books; 2000.
Stephens J. TB in South African prisons: Where to Now? NSP Rev. [Internet]. 2013 Sep 4;(7). http://www.nspreview.org/2013/09/04/tb-in-south-african-prisons-where-to-now/. Accessed 24 Dec 2013
Stuckler D, Basu S, Gilmore A, Batniji R, Ooms G, Marphatia AA, et al. An evaluation of the international monetary fund’s claims about public health. Int J Health Serv. 2010;40(2):327–32.
Summers LH, Pritchett L. Wealthier is healthier. J Hum Resour. 1996;31(4):841–68.
Sunstein C. Against positive rights. East Eur Const Rev. 1993;2:35.
Tushnet M. Weak courts, strong rights: judicial review and social welfare rights in comparative constitutional law. Princeton University Press; 2009.
University of Ottawa. JuriGlobe-World Legal Systems [Internet]. http://www.juriglobe.ca/eng/apropos/index.php. Accessed 5 May 2013
UNU-WIDER. World Income Inequality Database, v.2 [Internet]. 2010. http://website1.wider.unu.edu/wiid/wiid-documentation1.php. Accessed 7 Mar 2013
Weede E. The impact of democracy or repressiveness on the quality of life, income distribution and economic growth rates. Int Sociol. 1993;8(2):177–95.
Wilkinson RG. Income distribution and life expectancy. BMJ. 1992;304(6820):165.
Wilkinson RG, Pickett KE. The problems of relative deprivation: why some societies do better than others. Soc Sci Med. 2007;65(9):1965–78.
Wolff J. The Human Right to Health. WW Norton & Company; 2012.
World Bank. World Development Indicators [Internet]. 2013. http://data.worldbank.org/products/wdi.
World Health Organization. Global Health Expenditure Database [Internet]. 2015. http://apps.who.int/nha/database
World Health Organization. Global Health Observatory [Internet]. 2015. http://www.who.int/gho/database/en/
Yamin AE, Gloppen S. Litigating health rights: can courts bring more justice to health. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 2011.
Yamin AE, Parra-Vera O. Judicial protection of the right to health in Colombia: from social demands to individual claims to public debates. Hastings Intl Comp Law Rev. 2010;33:431.
Yamin AE, Parra-Vera O, Gianella C. Judicial protection of the right to health: an elusive promise? In: Yamin AE, Gloppen S, editors. Litigating health rights. Harvard; 2011.
Young KG. Constituting economic and social rights. Oxford University Press; 2012.
Tom Ginsburg. 2011. The Comparative Constitutions Project: a cross-national historical dataset of written constitutions. Personal correspondence. http://www.comparativeconstitutionsproject.org. Accessed 25 March 2013
I am grateful for a National Science Foundation Law & Social Sciences grant and a Leonard Davis Institute Innovative/High Risk Research Grant that supports this project. I extend my sincere thanks to Devesh Kapur, Jennifer Prah Ruger, Guy Grossman, Julia Lynch, Rogers Smith, Matt Levendusky, and Neelanjan Sircar as well as two anonymous reviewers for helpful comments and advice and to Tom Ginsburg for both data and inspiration for this project; all errors are, of course, my own.
Revisions, Resubmitted to Studies in Comparative International Development
About this article
Cite this article
Kavanagh, M.M. The Right to Health: Institutional Effects of Constitutional Provisions on Health Outcomes. St Comp Int Dev 51, 328–364 (2016). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12116-015-9189-z