Re-Thinking Pharmaceutical Production in Africa; Insights from the Analysis of the Local Manufacturing Dynamics in Mozambique and Zimbabwe
- 394 Downloads
Until recently, consensus existed in certain circles that the African industry was not suitable for cost-effective production of quality, safe drugs. Yet, public and private pharmaceutical enterprises have cropped up on the continent, with some venturing into production of sophisticated and complex drugs, such as antiretrovirals (ARVs). In our study, we analyse and contrast the dynamics of local pharmaceutical manufacturing in Mozambique and Zimbabwe with the objective of understanding why pharmaceutical production in Africa is picking up momentum and the influence of global funding for ARVs in this process. Our analysis identifies two routes of development for local pharmaceutical manufacturing: a favourable economic outlook and support from the international community created the necessary conditions for the development of the nascent pharmaceutical industry in Mozambique, while in Zimbabwe, the presence of an established local industry was instrumental in bringing in favourable, if not always coherent, government regulation. In both countries, the introduction of AIDS treatment created windows of opportunity for local production of pharmaceuticals by increasing public sector demand, providing fresh funds, and providing a justification for government regulation favouring local production. Despite the long-standing and well-known problems that created persistent shortcomings in human resources and in the economic and industrial environments, we conclude that pre-existing developmental roots, international funds and supportive state industrial policies are encouraging more manufacturers to enter the business of local pharmaceutical production in Africa. However, the opportunities brought in by fresh AIDS funds will need to be sensibly managed at both the local and global levels, as the world’s interest on the disease may not last in the long term.
KeywordsMedicines in Africa Pharmaceutical manufacturing Pharmaceutical markets Mozambique Zimbabwe
- Banda G. Financing ARV drug manufacture in Zimbabwe: implications for technological capability upgrading and innovation for African local pharmaceutical production. PhD Thesis. UK: The Open University 2012Google Scholar
- CMAM. “Proposta de Necessidades E Alocação de Recursos Para Medicamentos”. Ministério da Saúde de Moçambique 2011.Google Scholar
- COWI. Finalização do plano de negócios da SMM: situação dos mercados farmacêuticos Em Moçambique E Na Região Da SADC. Maputo: COWI Consulting, Africa; 2012.Google Scholar
- De Oliveira L. Inicitativa de instalação Da fábrica de antiretrovirrais E outros medicamentos Em moçambique; avaliação Do projecto”. Fundação Oswaldo Cruz: Farmanguinhos; 2013.Google Scholar
- Froese EH. Meeting the pharmaceutical needs of a developing country. World Health Forum. 1991;12(1):25–8.Google Scholar
- GIZ. Bringing Medicines to Low-Income Markets—A Guide to Creating Inclusive Business Models for Pharmaceutical Companies. German Federal Ministry for Economic Cooperation and Development (BMZ). 2012. http://www2.gtz.de/dokumente/bib-2012/giz2012-0025en-medicines-low-income-markets.pdf.
- GoM. Diploma ministerial No52/2010 Sobre Fixação de Preços de Medicamentos. 2010.Google Scholar
- Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, and Human Development Network the World Bank. The Global Burden of Disease: Generating Evidence, Guiding Policy Sub-Saharan Africa Regional Edition. The University of Washington and the Human Development Network. Washington, DC: World Bank. 2013. http://documents.worldbank.org/curated/en/2013/08/18187588/global-burden-disease-generating-evidence-guiding-policy-sub-saharan-africa-regional-edition.
- Kaplan W, Laing R. Local production of pharmaceuticals: industrial policy and access to medicines: an overview of key concepts, issues and opportunities for future research. 32036. HPN Discussion Paper. The World Bank. 2005. http://www.who.int/medicines/technical_briefing/tbs/KaplanLocalProductionFinal5b15d.pdf.
- MISAU. “Plano Estratégico Da Área Farmacêutica”. Departamento Farmacêutico do Ministério da Saúde da República de Moçambique. 1996.Google Scholar
- Osewe PL, Nkrumah YK, Sackey EK. Improving access to HIV/AIDS medicines in Africa: Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) flexibilities utilization. World Bank Publications. 2008.Google Scholar
- Pfeiffer J, Montoya P, Alberto J, Baptista MK, de Morais M, Pugas MM, et al. Integration of HIV/AIDS services into African primary health care: lessons learned for health system strengthening in Mozambique—a case study. J Int AIDS Soc. 2010;13(1):3. doi: 10.1186/1758-2652-13-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Portal V. Lula Visita 1a Fábrica de Remédios Contra Aids Em Moçambique—Portal Vermelho. 2010. http://www.vermelho.org.br/noticia/141228-9.
- Rovira J. Creating and promoting domestic drug manufacturing capacities: a solution for developing countries? In: In Negot heal intellect prop access mediciens. Sterling: International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development; 2006.Google Scholar
- Sacco S. 2004. A comparative study of the implementation in ZIMBABWE and south africa of the international law rules that allow compulsory licensing and parallel importation for HIV/AIDS drugs. University Phd Dissertation. The American University of Cairo. http://repository.up.ac.za/xmlui/bitstream/handle/2263/1100/sacco_sf_1.pdf?sequence=1.
- Seiter A. A practical approach to pharmaceutical policy. Vol. 55203. Directions in development. Washington: The World Bank, 2010. https://openknowledge.worldbank.org/bitstream/handle/10986/2468/552030PUB0Phar10Box349442B01PUBLIC1.pdf?sequence=4.
- SMM, and Farmanguinhos. Plano de negócios Da SMM. Matola: Sociedade Moçambicana de Medicamentos; 2013.Google Scholar
- UNCTAD. UNCTADSTAT—Trade Statistical Database. United Nations Conference for Trade and Developtment. 2013. http://unctadstat.unctad.org/ReportFolders/reportFolders.aspx?sCS_referer=&sCS_ChosenLang=en.
- UNIDO. Pharmaceutical sector profile: Uganda. Global UNIDO project: strengthening the local production of essential generic drugs in least developed and developing countries. Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization; 2010.Google Scholar
- UNIDO. Pharmaceutical sector profile: Zimbabwe. Global UNIDO project: strengthening the local production of essential generic drugs in least developed and developing countries. Vienna: United Nations Industrial Development Organization; 2011.Google Scholar
- UNIDO-AUC. Pharmaceutical manufacturing plan for Africa—business plan. Prepared as part of the African union commission-UNIDO partnership. Addis Ababa: United Nations Industrial development Organization; 2012.Google Scholar
- WHO. Local production for access to medical products: developing a framework to improve public health. WHO Public Health Innovation and Intellectual Property. ISBN: 978 92 4 150289 4. 2011. http://www.who.int/phi/publications/local_production_policy_framework/en/.
- World Bank. The World Bank Statistical Database. 2013. http://data.worldbank.org/.