This study examines the relationship between support for excessive use of force by the police and support for Trump during the 2016 primary election cycle. Findings suggest that White Americans’ support for Trump among primary voters is partly explained by negative racial stereotypes of Black Americans and support for excessive use of force by the police in their dealings with members of the Black community.
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Intended vote if the election were between Hillary Clinton … Trump, who would you vote for (Trump = 1; Clinton = 0)
|Beliefs about police excessive|
|Use of force with Blacks||- “How often do you think police officers use more force than is necessary under the circumstances when dealing with Black people?” (very often = 0, somewhat often = 1, sometimes = 2, rarely = 3, never = 4)|
|Beliefs about police stopping|
|Blacks more than necessary||- “How often do you think police officers stop Black people on the street without a good reason?” (very often = 0, somewhat often = 1, sometimes = 2, rarely = 3, never = 4)|
|Stereotype I (Blacks violent)||– “How well does the word “violent” describe Blacks?” (not at all well = 0, slightly well = 1, moderately well = 2, very well = 3, extremely well = 4)|
|Stereotype II (Blacks Lazy)||- “How well does the word “lazy” describe Blacks?” (not at all well = 0, slightly well = 1, moderately well = 2, very well = 3, extremely well = 4)|
|Spending||- “Some people think the government should provide fewer services even in areas such health and education in order to reduce spending. Suppose these people are at one end of a scale, at point 1. Other people feel it is important for the government to provide many more services even if it means an increase in spending. Suppose these people are at the other end, at point 7. And of course, some other people have opinions somewhere in between, at points 2, 3, 4, 5, or 6. Where would you place yourself on this scale, or have not you thought much about this? (recoded to range of 0 to 6 (increase spending a lot = 0 to decrease spending a lot = 6))|
|Support for government|
|Spending on health care||- “Do you favor an increase, decrease, or no change in government spending to help people pay for health insurance when they cannot pay for it all themselves?” (increase a great deal = 0, increase moderately = 1, increase a little = 2, no change = 3, decrease a little = 4, decrease moderately = 5, decrease a great deal = 6)|
|Political party identity||- “Generally speaking, do you usually think of yourself as a Republican, a Democrat, an independent, or what? (Democrat = 0, Republican/Independent = 1)|
|Race||- “Now think of your background in racial and ethnic terms. How would you describe your race and ethnicity using this 10 point system?” (other = 0, White = 1)|
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Swain, R.D. Negative Black Stereotypes, Support for Excessive Use of Force by Police, and Voter Preference for Donald Trump During the 2016 Presidential Primary Election Cycle. J Afr Am St 22, 109–124 (2018). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-018-9398-4
- Negative racial stereotypes
- Excessive force by the police
- Minimization of racialized policing
- Donald Trump
- 2016 presidential election
- Voter behavior