Hundreds of thousands of Black students forced the institutionalization of the discipline of Black Studies as part of a larger Black Campus Movement that diversified higher education. Several scholars have examined the movement at particular campuses, or they have addressed one of the factors leading to the origin of Black Studies. Examinations with a national scope are rare, and they have not centered the historiography on the efforts of the students. This paper provides a narrative and analytical overview of the nationwide struggle of the Black students that began in 1965 and climaxed in the spring of 1969 to push and pull the discipline of Black Studies into the academy. It details the major events and pioneers surrounding the birth and the slew of student protests and conferences that led to institutionalization of Black Studies in 1969.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Price excludes VAT (USA)
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Allen, R. (1974). Politics of the attack on black studies. The Black Scholar, 6, 2–7.
Anthony, E. (1971). The time of the furnaces: A case study of black student revolt. New York: The Dial Press.
Astin, A. W., Astin, H. S., Bayer, A. E., & Bisconti, A. S. (1975). The power of protest: A national study of student and faculty disruptions with implications for the future. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Barlow, W., & Shapiro, P. (1971). An end to silence: The San Francisco state college student movement in the 60 s. New York: Pegasus Press.
Bayer, A., & Astin, A. (1969). Violence and disruption on the U.S. campus, 1968–1969. Educational. Record, 50, 337–350.
Bayer, A., & Astin, A. (1971). Campus unrest, 1970–71: Was it really all that quiet? Educational Record, 52, 301–313.
Benet, J. (1971). Introduction. In D. Karagueuzian, Blow it Up! The Black Student Revolt at San Francisco State College and the Emergence of Dr. Hayakawa, Boston: Gambit.
Bradley, S. M. (2009). Harlem vs. Columbia university: Black student power in the late 1960 s. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Brisbane, R. H. (1974). Black activism: Racial revolution in the United States 1954–1970. Valley Forge: Judson Press.
Brown, S. (2003). Fighting for US: Maulana Karenga, the US Organization, and Black Cultural Nationalism. New York: New York University Press.
Bunzel, J. H. (1968). Black studies at San Francisco State. The Public Interest, 13, 22–38.
Burks, E. C. (1969). CORE’s chief assails Wilkins stand. New York Times 25.
Cohodas, N. (1997). The band played Dixie: Race and the liberal conscience at Ole Miss. New York: The Free Press.
Cook, D. C. (1992). The desegregation and integration of Central Missouri State University (Masters thesis). Central Missouri State University, Warrensburg, Missouri.
Crouchett, L. (1971). Early black studies movements. Journal of Black Studies, 2, 189–200.
Crowl, J. A. (1968). Many colleges plan ways of starting ‘black studies.’ The Chronicle of Higher Education 3.
Downs, D. A. (1999). Cornell’69: Liberalism and the crisis of the American university. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Duren, A. M. (1979). Overcoming: A history of black integration at the University of Texas at Austin. Austin: University of Texas Press.
Dyer, C. M. (1990). Protest and the politics of open admissions: the impact of the black and Puerto Rican students’ community (of City College) (Doctoral dissertation). New York: City University of New York.
Edwards, H. (1970). Black students. New York: Free Press.
Egerton, J. (1969). State universities and black Americans: An inquiry into desegregation and equity for Negroes in 100 public universities. Atlanta: Southern Education Reporting Service.
Eichel, L. E., Jost, K. W., Luskin, R. D., & Neustadt, R. M. (1970). The Harvard strike. Boston: Hougton Mifflin Company.
Exum, W. H. (1985). Paradoxes of protest: Black student activism in a white university. Philadelphia: Temple University Press.
Farrar, H. (2008). Prying the door farther open: A memoir of black student protest at the University of Maryland at College Park, 1966–1970. In P. Wallenstein (Ed.), Higher Education and the Civil Rights Movement: White Supremacy, Black Southerners, and College Campuses. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.
Foley, J. A., & Foley, R. K. (1969). The college scene: Students tell it like it is. New York: Cowles Book Company.
Ford, N. A. (1973). Black studies: Threat or challenge. Port Washington: Kennikat Press.
Grady-Willis, W. A. (2006). Challenging U.S. apartheid: Atlanta and black struggles for human rights, 1960–1977. Durham, NC: Duke University Press.
Hare, N. (1969). The case for separatism: ‘Black perspective.’ Newsweek 56.
Hare, N. (1970). A conceptual proposal for a department of black studies. In W. Orrick, Jr., College in Crisis: A Report to the National Commission of the Causes and Prevention of Violence, Nashville: Aurora Publishers.
Hill, J. (2006). Excerpts from a life standing at the well. The Black Scholar, 36, 31–35.
Hull, G. T., Scott, P. B., & Smith, B. (Eds.). (1982). All the women are white, all the blacks are men, but some of us are brave: Black women’s studies. New York: The Feminist Press.
Janssen, P. A. (1972). Higher education and the black American: Phase 2. The Chronicle of Higher Education 1.
Joseph, P. (2003). Dashikis and democracy: Black studies, student activism, and the black power movement. The Journal of African American History, 88, 182–203.
Karagueuzian, D. (1971). Blow it up!: The black student revolt at San Francisco state and the emergence of Dr. Gambit: Hayakawa. Boston.
Kifner, J. (1969). Colleges Step Up Changes In Bid to Avert Disruption: Nation’s Campuses Are Hastening to Institute Changes in an Attempt to Avert Student Disruptions. New York Times 1A.
Kilson, M. (1971). The black student militant. Encounter, 37, 80–85.
Kilson, M., Jr. (2009). The intellectual validity of studying the black experience. In A. L. Robinson, C. C. Foster, & D. H. Ogilvie (Eds.), Black Studies in the University: A Symposium. New Haven: Yale University Press.
King, W. M. (2000). The early years of three major professional black studies organizations. In D. P. Aldridge & C. Young (Eds.), Out of the Revolution: The Development of Africana Studies. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Kornberg, A., & Smith, J. (1969). ‘It ain’t over yet’: Activism in a Southern university. In J. McEvoy & A. Miller (Eds.), Black Power and Student Rebellion. Belmont: Wadsworth.
Litwak, L., & Wilner, H. (1971). College Days in Earthquake Country. New York: Random House.
Lukas, J. A. (1968). Schools turn to Negro role in U. S.: Educators turn to a balanced teaching of Negroes’ role in American history: New focus is put on black studies: First major response to the demand expected in fall in courses at colleges. New York Times 1A.
Lyons, J., & Lyons, M. (1971). Black student power. In P. Altbach (Ed.), Academic Supermarkets: A Critical Case Study of a Multiversity. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
Martin, T. (2004). Black studies, Wellesley college. In M. K. Asante & A. Mazama (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Black Studies. Thousand Oaks: Sage.
May, B. (1968). My view: Blacks in white colleges. New Pittsburg Courier 6.
McCormick, R. P. (1990). The black student protest movement at Rutgers. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press.
Murch, D. (2006). The campus and the street: Race, migration, and the origins of the black panther party in Oakland, CA. Souls: A Critical Journal of Black Politics, Culture, and Society, 9, 333–345.
Orrick, W. H., Jr. (1970). College in crisis: A report to the national commission on the causes and prevention of violence. Nashville: Aurora Publishers.
Palcic, J. L. (1979). The history of the black student union at Florida State university, 1968 1978 (Doctoral dissertation). Tallahassee, Florida: Florida State University.
Perlstein, D. (1990). Teaching freedom: SNCC and the creation of the Mississippi freedom schools. History of Education Quarterly, 30, 297–324.
Pinkney, A. (1976). Red, Black, and Green: Black Nationalism in the United States. New York: Cambridge University Press.
Pitts, J. P. (1975). The politicization of black students: Northwestern university. Journal of Black Studies, 5, 277–319.
Robinson, A. L. (1969). Preface. In A. L. Robinson, C. C. Foster, & D. H. Ogilvie (Eds.), Black Studies in the University: A Symposium. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Robinson, A. L., Foster, C. C., & Ogilvie, D. H. (Eds.). (1969). Black studies in the university: A symposium. New Haven: Yale University Press.
Rogers, I. (2009a). The black campus movement: An Afrocentric narrative history of the struggle to diversify higher education, 1965–1972 (Doctoral dissertation). Philadelphia, Pennsylvania: Temple University.
Rogers, I. (2009b). Remembering the black campus movement: An oral history interview with James P. Garrett. The Journal of Pan-African Studies, 2, 30–41.
Rojas, F. (2006). Social movement tactics, organizational change and the spread of African American studies. Social Forces, 84, 2147–2166.
Rojas, F. (2007). From Black Power to Black Studies: How a Radical Social Movement Became an Academic Discipline. Baltimore: The John Hopkins University Press.
Rooks, N. M. (2006). White money/black power: The surprising history of African American studies and the crisis of race in higher education. Boston: Beacon.
Rosenblatt, R. (1997). Coming apart: A memoir of the Harvard wars of 1969. Boston: Little, Brown and Company.
Roy, J. W. (2000). Student activism and the historically black university: Hampton institute and Howard university, 1960–1972 (Doctoral dissertation). Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University.
Rury, J. L. (2000). Race, conflict and the urban Catholic university: DePaul’s black students in 1969. American Educational History Journal, 27, 1–8.
Rustin, B. (1969). Dr. Clark’s stand on Antioch. New York Amsterdam News 6.
Scully, M. G. (1969). Negro students push demands: Reaction grows. The Chronicle of Higher Education 1.
Seale, B. (1970). Seize the time: The story of the black panther party and Huey P. Newton. New York: Vintage Books.
Smith, A. L. (1970). Editor’s message. Journal of Black Studies, 1, 3–4.
Spofford, T. (1988). Lynch street: The May 1970 slayings at Jackson State college. Kent, Ohio: Kent State University Press.
Stevens, E. (1967). The black university in America today: A student viewpoint. Freedomways, 7, 131–138.
Student Strikes: 1968–1969. (1970). Black Scholar, 1, 65–75.
The Institute of the Black World, Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Center, Atlanta, GA Statement of Purpose and Program, Fall 1969 The Massachusetts Review, 10:713–717
Trotter, J. W., Jr. (2001). The African American experience, volume II, from reconstruction. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company.
Turner, J. (2000a). Africana studies and epistemology. In D. P. Aldridge & C. Young (Eds.), Out of the Revolution: The Development of Africana Studies. Lanham: Lexington Books.
Turner, J. A. (2000b). Conscious and conflict: Patterns in the history of student activism on southern college campuses, 1960–1970 (Doctoral dissertation). New Orleans, Louisiana: Tulane University.
Wilkins, R. (1969). The case against separatism: ‘Black Jim Crow.’ Newsweek 57.
Williamson, J. A. (2003). Black Power on Campus: The University of Illinois, 1965–75. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
Williamson, J. A. (2008). Radicalizing the ebony tower: Black colleges and the black freedom struggle in Mississippi. New York: Teachers College Press.
Winkler, K. (1975). The state of black studies: Reports of their demise are proving to be exaggerated. The Chronicle of Higher Education 5.
Young, W. (1968). To be equal: Black students fight for equality. Chicago Dailey Defender 11.
Young, A. A. (1988). Revolt of the privileged: The coming together of the black community at Wesleyan university, 1965–1976. Middletown, CT: Center for Afro-American Studies, Wesleyan University.
About this article
Cite this article
Rogers, I.H. The Black Campus Movement and the Institutionalization of Black Studies, 1965–1970. J Afr Am St 16, 21–40 (2012). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12111-011-9173-2