Sociobiologists and feminists agree that men in patriarchal social systems seek to control females, but sociobiologists go further, using Darwin’s theory of sexual selection and Trivers’s ideas on parental investment to explain why males should attempt to control female sexuality. From this perspective, the stage for the development under some conditions of patriarchal social systems was set over the course of primate evolution.
Sexual selection encompasses both competition between males and female choice. But in applying this theory to our “lower origins” (prehominid ancestors), Darwin assumed that choices were made by essentially “coy” females. I argue here that female solicitation of multiple males (either simultaneously or sequentially, depending on the breeding system) characterized prehominid females; this prehominid legacy of cyclical sexual assertiveness, itself possibly a female counter-strategy to male efforts to control the timing of female reproduction, generated further male counter-strategies. This dialectic had important implications for emerging hominid mating systems, human evolution, and the development of patriarchal arrangements in some human societies. For hominid males who will invest in offspring, there would be powerful selection for emotions, behaviors, and customs that ensure them certainty of paternity. The sexual modesty that so struck Darwin can be explained as a recent evolved or learned (perhaps both) adaptation in women to avoid penalties imposed by patrilines on daughters and mates who failed to conform to the patriline’s prevailing norms for their sex. Other supposedly innate universals, such as female preferences for wealthy husbands, are also likely to be facultative accommodations by women to constraints set up when patrilines monopolized resources needed by females to survive and reproduce, and passed on intergenerational control of these resources preferentially to sons.
This is a preview of subscription content, access via your institution.
Buy single article
Instant access to the full article PDF.
Tax calculation will be finalised during checkout.
Acton, W. 1865 Functions and Disorders of the Reproductive System, fourth ed. London.
Adams, D. B., A. R. Gold, and A. D. Burt 1978 Rise in Female-Initiated Sexual Activity at Ovulation and Its Suppression by Oral Contraceptives. New England Journal of Medicine 299:1145–1150.
Alexander, R. D. 1979 Darwinism and Human Behavior. Seattle: Washington University Press.
Alper, J., J. Beckwith, and L. G. Miller 1978 Sociobiology Is a Political Issue. In The Sociobiology Debate, A. Caplan, ed. Pp. 476–488. New York: Harper and Row.
Altmann, J. 1980 Baboon Mothers and Infants. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Altmann, J., S. C. Alberts, S. A. Haines, J. Dubach, P. Muruthi, T. Coote, E. Geffen, D. J. Cheesman, R. S. Mututua, S. N. Saiyalel, R. K. Wayne, R. C. Lacy, and M. W. Bruford 1996 Behavior Predicts Genetic Structure in a Wild Primate Group. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 93:5797–5801.
Andelman, S. 1987 Evolution of Concealed Ovulation in Vervet Monkeys (Cercopithecus aethiops). American Naturalist 129:785–799.
Anderson, C. 1986 Female Age: Male Preference and Reproductive Success in Primates. International Journal of Primatology 7:305–326.
Anderson, C., and C. Bielert 1994 Adolescent Exaggeration in Female Catarrhine Primates. Primates 35:283–300.
Baker, R. R., and M. A. Bellis 1995 Human Sperm Competition: Copulation, Masturbation and Infidelity. London: Chapman and Hall.
Bateman, A. J. 1948 Intra-sexual Selection in Drosophila. Heredity 26:349–368.
Bercovitch, F. 1995 Female Cooperation, Consortship Maintenance, and Male Mating Success in Savanna Baboons. Animal Behavior 50:137–149.
Birkhead, T. R., F. Fletcher, E. J. Pellatt, and A. Saples 1995 Ejaculate Quality and the Success of Extra-pair Copulations in the Zebra Finch. Nature 377:422–423.
Boone, J. 1986 Parental Investment and Elite Family Structure in Preindustrial States: A Case Study of Late Medieval-Early Modern Portuguese Genealogies. American Anthropologist 88: 859–878.
1988 Parental Investment, Social Subordination, and Population Processes among the 15th and 16th Century Portuguese Nobility. In Human Reproductive Behaviour, L. Betzig, M. Borgerhoff Mulder, and P. Turke, eds. Pp. 201–220. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Borgerhoff Mulder, M. 1987 Resources and Reproductive Success in Women, with an Example from the Kipsigis. Journal of Zoology 213:489–505.
1988 Reproductive Consequences of Sex-Biased Inheritance for the Kipsigis. In Comparative Socioecology of Mammals and Man, V. Standen and R. Foley, eds. Pp. 405–426. London: Blackwell.
1990 Kipsigis Women’s Preference for Wealthy Men: Evidence for Female Choice in Mammals? Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 27:255–264.
Broude, G. 1980 Extramarital Sex Norms in Cross-Cultural Perspective. Behavior Science Research 15(3):181–218.
Broude, G., and S. J. Greene 1976 Cross-Cultural Codes on Twenty Sexual Attitudes and Practices. Ethology 15:410–429.
Brown, L., R. W. Schumaker, and J. Downhower 1994 Do Primates Experience Sperm Competition? American Naturalist 146:302–306.
Browne, K. R. 1995 Sex and Temperament in Modern Society: A Darwinian View of the Glass Ceiling and the Gender Gap. Arizona Law Review 37(4):973–1106.
Brownmiller, S. 1975 Against Our Will: Men, Women and Rape. New York: Simon and Schuster.
Burke, T., N. B. Davies, M. W. Bruford, and B. J. Hatchwell 1989 Paternal Care and Mating Behaviour of Polyandrous Dunnocks Prunella modularis Related to Paternity by DNA Fingerprinting. Nature 338:249–251.
Burton, F. D. 1970 Sexual Climax in Female Macaca mulatta. Proceedings of the Third International Congress of Primatology, Zurich 1970 3:180–191.
Buss, D. 1991 Mate Selection for Parenting Skills (Response to Chisholm). Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14:520–521.
1994a The Evolution of Desire. New York: Basic Books.
1994b The Strategies of Human Mating. American Scientist 82:238–249.
1996 Sexual Conflict: Evolutionary Insight into Feminism and the “Battle of the Sexes.” In Sex, Power and Conflict: Evolutionary and Feminist Perspectives, D. Buss and N. Malamuth, eds. Pp. 296–318. New York: Oxford University Press.
Byers, John, J. D. Moodie, and N. Hall 1994 Pronghorn Females Choose Vigorous Mates. Animal Behavior 47:33–43.
Chisholm, J. S. 1991 Whose Reproductive Value? Behavioral and Brain Sciences 14:519–530.
Chisholm, J. S., and V. Burbank 1991 Monogamy and Polygyny in Southeast Arnhem Land: Male Coercion and Female Choice. Ethology and Sociobiology 12:291–313.
Clutton-Brock, T. H., and P. Harvey 1976 Evolutionary Rules and Primate Societies. In Growing Points in Ethology, P. P. G. Bateson and R. A. Hinde, eds. Pp. 195–237. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Clutton-Brock, T. H., and G. A. Parker 1995a Punishment in Animal Societies. Nature 373:209–216.
1995b Sexual Coercion in Animal Societies. Animal Behavior 49:1345–1365.
Cronin, H. 1991 The Ant and the Peacock. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dahl, J. 1985 The External Genitalia of Female Pygmy Chimpanzees. Anatomical Record 211:24–28.
Dahl, J., and R. Nadler 1992 Genital Swelling in Females of the Monogamous Gibbon, Hylobates (H.) lar. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 89:101–108.
Dahl, J., R. Nadler, and D. G. Collins 1991 Monitoring the Ovarian Cycles of Pan troglodytes and Pan paniscus: A Comparative Approach. American Journal of Primatology 24:195–209.
Daly, M., and M. Wilson 1983 Sex, Evolution and Behavior. Boston: Willard Grant Bateman Press.
1988 Homicide. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Darwin, C. 1876 Sexual Selection in Relation to Monkeys. Nature 15:18–19.
1965 Expressions of the Emotions in Man and Animals. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. [originally published in 1872]
1974 The Descent of Man and Selection in Relation to Sex. Detroit: Gale Research. [reprint of 1871 publication]
Davies, N. B. 1992 Dunnock Behaviour and Social Evolution. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
de Ruiter, J. R., E. J. Wickings, W. Scheffrahn, N. Menard, M. Bruford, and M. Inoue 1992 Summary of Symposium on Genetic Markers from XIVth International Primatological Society Meeting, Strasbourg, August 1992. Primates 43:469, 553–555.
Dickemann, M. 1979 The Ecology of Mating Systems in Hypergymous Dowry Societies. Social Science Information 18:163–195.
1981 Paternal Confidence and Dowry Competition: A Biocultural Analysis of Purdah. In Natural Selection and Social Behavior, R. D. Alexander and D. W. Tinkle, eds. Pp. 417–438. Concord, Massachusetts: Chiron Press.
Dixson, A. G. 1983 Observations on the Evolution and Behavioral Significance of “Sexual Skin” in Female Primates. Advances in the Study of Behavior 13:63–106.
Doyle, G. A. 1974 Behavior of Prosimians. In Behavior of Nonhuman Primates, Vol. 4, A. M. Schrier and F. Stollnitz, eds. Pp. 155–353. New York: Academic Press.
Drickamer, L. 1974 A Ten-Year Summary of Reproductive Data for Free-Ranging Macaca mulatta. Folia Primatologica 21:61–80.
Emlen, Steve 1995 An Evolutionary Theory of the Family. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 92:8092–8099.
Engels, F. 1973 The Origin of the Family, Private Property and the State. New York: International Publishers. [originally published in 1884]
Furuichi, T. 1992 Prolonged Estrus of Females and Factors Influencing Mating in a Wild Unit-Group of Bonobos (Pan paniscus) in Wamba, Zaire. Paper presented at the 23rd Congress of the IPS, Strasbourg.
Gangestad, S. W. 1993 Sexual Attraction and Physical Attractiveness: Implications for Mating Dynamics. Human Nature 4:205–235.
Ghiglieri, M. P. 1987 Sociobiology of the Great Apes and the Hominid Ancestor. Journal of Human Evolution 16:319–357.
Glander, K. 1980 Reproduction and Population Growth in Free-Ranging Mantled Howler Monkeys. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 53:26–36.
Goldberg, S. 1993 Why Men Rule: A Theory of Male Dominance. Chicago: Open Court.
Goldfoot, D. A., H. Westerborg-van Loon, W. Groeneveld, and A. K. Slob 1980 Behavioral and Physiological Evidence of Sexual Climax in the Female Stump-Tailed Macaque (Macaca arctoides). Science 208:1477–1479.
Goodall, J. 1971 In the Shadow of Man. London: Collins.
1986 The Chimpanzees of Gombe. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Gould, S. J. 1976 Biological Potential vs. Biological Determinism. In The Sociobiology Debate, A. Caplan, ed. Pp. 343–351. New York: Harper and Row.
1995 Male Nipples and Clitoral Ripples. In Adam’s Navel, by S. J. Gould. Pp. 41–58. London: Penguin Books. (Reprinted from “Freudian Slip,” Natural History 2:14–21, originally published in 1987).
Gowaty, P. A. 1992 Evolutionary Biology and Feminism. Human Nature 3:217–249.
1995 False Criticisms of Sociobiology and Behavioral Ecology: Genetic Determinism, Untestability, and Inappropriate Comparisons. Politics and the Life Sciences 14(2):174–180.
1996 Sexual Dialectics, Sexual Selection and Variation in Mating Behavior. In Feminism and Evolutionary Biology: Boundaries, Intersections and Frontiers, P. A. Gowaty, ed. New York: Chapman and Hall, in press.
n.d. Forced Copulation in Birds: Occurrences and the CODE Hypothesis. Ms. in author’s possession.
Grammer, Karl 1996 The Human Mating Game: The Battle of the Sexes and the War of Signals. Paper presented at the 8th Annual Human Behavior and Evolution Society Meetings, Evanston, Illinois. June 26–30, 1996.
Hampson, E., and D. Kimura 1988 Reciprocal Effects of Hormonal Fluctuations on Human Motor and Perceptual-Spatial Skills. Behavioral Neuroscience 102:456–459.
Harcourt, A. 1996 Sexual Selection in Sperm Competition in Primates: What Are Male Genitalia Good For? Evolutionary Anthropology 4(4):121–129.
Harcourt, A. H., P. H. Harvey, S. G. Larson, and R. V. Short 1981 Testis Weight, Body Weight and Breeding Systems in Primates. Nature 293:55–57.
Hartung, J. 1976 On Natural Selection and the Inheritance of Wealth. Current Anthropology 17:607–622.
Hasselquist, D., S. Bensch, and Torbjorn von Schantz 1996 Correlation between Male Song Repertoire, Extra-pair Paternity and Offspring Survival in the Great Reed Warbler. Nature 381:229–232.
Hausfater, G., and S. B. Hrdy, eds. 1984 Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives. New York: Aldine.
Hill, K., and A. M. Hurtado 1995 Ache Life History: The Ecology and Demography of a Foraging People. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Hill, K., and H. Kaplan 1988 Tradeoffs in Male and Female Reproductive Strategies among the Ache, Part 2. In Human Reproductive Behaviour, L. Betzig, M. Borgerhoff Mulder, and P. Turke, eds. Pp. 291–306. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Hiraiwa-Hasegawa, M., and T. Hasegawa 1994 Infanticide in Nonhuman Primates: Sexual Selection and Local Resource Competition. In Infanticide and Parental Care, S. Parmigiani and F. vom Saal, eds. Pp. 137–154. Switzerland: Harwood Academic.
Hite, S. 1976 The Hite Report. New York: MacMillan.
Hrdy, S. B. 1974 Male-Male Competition and Infanticide among the Langurs (Presbytis entellus) of Abu, Rajasthan. Folia Primatologica 22:19–58.
1977 The Langurs of Abu. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
1979 Infanticide among Animals, A Review, Classification and Examination of the Implications for the Reproductive Strategies of Females. Ethology and Sociobiology 1:3–40.
1981 The Woman That Never Evolved. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
1986 Empathy, Polyandry and the Myth of the Coy Female. In Feminist Approaches to Science, R. Bleier, ed. Pp. 119–146. New York: Pergammon Press.
1988 The Primate Origins of Human Sexuality. In The Evolution of Sex, R. Bellig and G. Stevens, eds. Pp. 101–136. New York: Harper and Row.
1990 Sex Bias in Nature and in History: A Late 1980s Reexamination of the “Biological Origins” Argument. American Journal of Physical Anthropology 33:25–37.
1992 Fitness Tradeoffs in the History and Evolution of Delegated Mothering with Special Reference to Wet-nursing, Abandonment and Infanticide. Ethology and Sociobiology 13:409–443.
n.d. Mother Nature. New York: Pantheon, ms. in preparation.
Hrdy, S. B., and D. Judge 1993 Darwin and the Puzzle of Primogeniture: An Essay on Biases in Parental Investment after Death. Human Nature 4:1–46.
Hrdy, S. B., and P. Whitten 1987 Patterning of Sexual Behavior. In Primate Societies, B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. Seyfarth, R. Wrangham, and T. T. Struhsaker, eds. Pp. 370–384. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Hrdy, S. B., C. Janson, and C. van Schaik 1995 Infanticide: Let’s Not Throw Out the Baby with the Bathwater. Evolutionary Anthropology 3(5):149–154.
Hubbard, R., M. S. Henifin, and B. Fried, eds. 1979 Women Look at Biology Looking at Women: A Collection of Feminist Critiques. Cambridge: Schenkman.
Irons, W. 1979 Investment and Primary Social Dyads. In Evolutionary Biology and Human Social Behavior, N. Chagnon and W. Irons, eds. Pp. 181–212. North Scituate, Massachusetts: Duxbury Press.
1983 Human Female Reproductive Strategies. In Social Behavior of Female Vertebrates, S. K. Wasser, ed. Pp. 169–213. New York: Academic Press.
Janson, H. W. 1952 The Sexuality of Apes. Apes and Ape Lore in the Middle Age and the Renaissance. London: Warburg Institute.
Jones, D. 1995 Sexual Selection, Physical Attractiveness and Facial Neoteny: Cross-Cultural Evidence and Implications. Current Anthropology 36:723–748.
Jones, D., and K. Hill 1993 Criteria of Facial Attractiveness in Five Populations. Human Nature 4:271–296.
Judge, D. S. 1995 American Legacies and the Variable Life Histories of Women and Men. Human Nature 6:291–323.
1996 The Inheritance of Property as Human Kin Investment: An Evolutionary Ecological Analysis of North American Wills. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.
Judge, D. S., and S. B. Hrdy 1992 Allocation of Accumulated Resources among Close Kin: Inheritance in Sacramento, California, 1890–1984. Ethology and Sociobiology 13:495–522.
n.d. Changes in Testamentary Treatment of Daughters from Colonial Times to the Nineteenth Century in Suffolk County, Massachusetts. Ms. in preparation.
Keller, L., and H. K. Reeve 1995 Why Do Females Mate with Multiple Males? The Sexually Selected Sperm Hypothesis. Advances in the Study of Behavior 24:291–315.
Kertzer, J. D. 1993 Sacrificed for Honor: Italian Infant Abandonment and Politics of Reproductive Control. Boston: Beacon Press.
Keverne, E. B. 1981 Do Old World Primates Have Oestrus? Malaysian Applied Biology 10:119–126.
Kummer, H., W. Gotz, and W. Angst 1974 Triadic Differentiation: An Inhibitory Process Protecting Pair Bonds in Baboons. Behaviour 49:62–87.
Lancaster, J. 1986 Human Adolescence and Reproduction. In Schoolage Pregnancy and Parenthood, J. Lancaster and B. Hamberg, eds. Pp. 17–37. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Leland, L., T. T. Struhsake, and T. Butynsky 1984 Infanticide by Adult Males in Three Primate Species of the Kibale Forest, Uganda: A Test of Hypothesis. In Infanticide: Comparative and Evolutionary Perspectives, G. Hausfater and S. B. Hrdy, eds. Pp. 151–172. New York: Aldine.
Lerner, G. 1986 The Creation of Patriarchy. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1993 The Creation of Feminist Consciousness. New York: Oxford University Press.
Liesen, L. T. 1995 Feminism and the Politics of Reproductive Strategies: Roundtable Commentaries and Reply. Politics and the Life Sciences 14(2):145–197.
Lipschitz, D. L. 1992 Profiles of Oestradiol, Progesterone and Luteinizing Hormone during the Oestrous Cycle of Female Galago senegalensis moholi. Abstracts of the XIVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, August 16–21, Strasbourg.
Lorch, D. 1996 Bride Wore White, Groom Hopes for Parole. New York Times (Sept. 5):B-1, 7.
Lovejoy, O. 1981 The Origins of Man. Science 211:241–250.
Madsen, T., R. Shine, J. Loman, and T. Hakansson 1992 Why Do Female Adders Copulate So Frequently? Nature 355:440–441.
Manson, J. H. 1995 Female Mate Choice in Primates. Evolutionary Anthropology 3(6):192–195.
Marval, N. 1971 The Case for Feminist Celibacy. Pamphlet. New York: The Feminists.
Masters, R. D. 1982 Is Sociobiology Reactionary? The Political Implications of Inclusive Fitness Theory. Quarterly Review of Biology 57:275–292.
Matteo, Sherri, and Emilie F. Rissman 1984 Increased Sexual Activity during the Midcycle Portion of the Human Menstrual Cycle. Hormones and Behavior 18:249–255.
McArthur, L. Z., and D. S. Berry 1983 Impressions of Baby-Faced Adults. Social Cognition 2:315–342.
McFarland, L. G. 1976 Comparative Anatomy of the Clitoris. In The Clitoris, T. P. Lowry and T. S. Lowry, eds. Pp. 22–34. St. Louis: Warren Green.
Moore, J. 1995 Personality, Ecology, and DNA: Male Reproductive Tactics in Old World Primates. Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the American Association of Physical Anthropologists, March 30, Oakland.
Morris, D. 1967 The Naked Ape. New York: Dell.
Morris, N. M., and J. R. Udry 1970 Variations in Pedometer Activity during the Menstrual Cycle. Obstetric Gynecology 35:199–201.
Murdock, G. P. 1976 Outline of World Cultures. New Haven: Human Relations Area Files.
Nakamura, M. 1990 Cloacal Protuberance and Copulatory Behavior of the Alpine Accentor (Prunella collaris). The Auk 107:284–295.
Pagel, M. 1994 The Evolution of Conspicuous Oestrous Advertisement in Old World Monkeys. Animal Behavior 47:1333–1341.
Palombit, R. 1992 Pair Bonds and Monogamy in Wild Siamangs (Hylobates syndactylus) and Whitehanded Gibbon (Hylobates lar) in Northern Sumatra. Ph.D. dissertation, University of California, Davis.
1994 Dynamic Pair Bonds in Hylobatids: Implications Regarding Monogamous Social Systems. Behaviour 128:65–101.
Parish, A. R. 1994 Sex and Food Control in the “Uncommon Chimpanzee”: How Bonobo Females Overcome a Phylogenetic Legacy of Male Dominance. Ethology and Sociobiology 15(3):157–179.
1996 Female Relationships in Bonobos (Pan paniscus): Evidence for Bonding, Cooperation, and Female Dominance in a Male-Philopatric Species. Human Nature 7:61–96.
Parish, A. R., and F. B. de Waal 1992 Bonobos Fish for Sweets: The Female Sex-for-Food Connection. Abstracts of the XIVth Congress of the International Primatological Society, August 16–21, Strasbourg.
Parmigiani, S., and F. vom Saal, eds. 1994 Infanticide and Parental Care. Switzerland: Harwood Academic.
Paul, L., M. A. Foss, and M. A. Baenninger 1996 Double Standards for Sexual Jealousy: Manipulative Morality or a Reflection of Evolved Sex Differences? Human Nature 7:291–324.
Pereira, M. E., and M. L. Weiss 1991 Female Mate Choice, Male Migration, and the Threat of Infanticide in Ringtailed Lemurs. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 28:141–152.
Petrie, M., M. Hall, T. Halliday, H. Budgey, and C. Pierpont 1992 Multiple Mating in a Lekking Bird: Why Do Peahens Mate with More Than One Male and with the Same Male More Than Once? Behavioral Ecolog and Sociobiology 31:349–358.
Quinn, Naomi 1977 Anthropological Studies on Women’s Status. Annual Review of Anthropology 6:181–225.
Reichard, U. 1995 Extra-pair Copulations in a Monogamous Gibbon (Hylobates lar). Ethology 100:99–112.
Rice, William 1996 Sexually Antagonistic Male Adaptation Triggered by Experimental Arrest of Female Evolution. Nature 381:232–234.
Ridley, M. 1993 The Red Queen: Sex and the Evolution of Human Nature. New York: MacMillan.
Riedl, B. I. M. 1990 Morphologisch-metrische Merkmale des Mannlichen und Weiblichen Partnerleitbildes in Ihrer Bedeuturng fur die Wahl des Ehegatten. Homo 41:72–85.
Rodseth, L., R. W. Wrangham, A. Harrigan, and B. Smuts 1991 The Human Community as a Primate Society. Current Anthropology 32:221–254.
Rossi, A. 1995 A Plea for Less Attention to Monkeys and Apes, and More to Human Biology and Evolutionary Psychology. Politics and the Life Sciences (August): 185–187.
Sanders, D., and J. Bancroft 1982 Hormones and the Sexuality of Women—The Menstrual Cycle. Clinics in Endocrinology and Metabolism 11(3):639–659.
Searcy, J. W. A., and K. Yasukawa 1989 Alternative Models of Territorial Polygyny in Birds. American Naturalist 134:323–343.
Sherfey, M. J. 1972 The Nature and Evolution of Female Sexuality, reprint ed. New York: Vintage Books. [originally published in 1966]
Short, R. D. 1979 Sexual Selection and Its Component Parts, Somatic and Genital Selection, as Illustrated by Man and the Great Apes. Advances in the Study of Behavior 9:131–158.
Shostak, M. 1981 Nisa: The Life and Words of a !Kung Woman. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press.
Sieff, D. 1990 Explaining Biased Sex Ratios in Human Populations. Current Anthropology 21:25–48.
Silk, J., C. B. Clark-Wheatley, P. S. Rodman, and A. Samuels 1981 Differential Reproductive Success and Facultative Adjustments of Sex Ratios among Captive Female Bonnet Macaques (Macaca radiata). Animal Behaviour 29:1106–1120.
Sillen-Tullberg, B., and A. P. Moller 1993 The Relationship between Concealed Ovulation and Mating Systems in Anthropoid Primates: A Phylogenetic Analysis. American Naturalist 141:1–25.
Slob, A. Kooks, C. M. Bax, W. C. J. Hop, D. L. Rowland, and J. J. van der Werff ten Bosch in press Sexual Arousability and the Menstrual Cycle. Psychoneuroendocrinology.
Slob, A. K., and J. J. van der Werff ten Bosch 1991 Orgasm in Nonhuman Species. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Orgasm, P. Kothari and R. Patel, eds. Bombay: VRP.
Slob, A. K., M. Ernste, and J. J. van der Werff ten Bosch 1991 Menstrual Cycle Phase and Sexual Arousability in Women. Archives of Sexual Behavior 20:567–577.
Slob, A. K., W. H. Groeneveld, and J. J. van der Werff ten Bosch 1986 Physiological Changes during Copulation in Male and Female Stumptail Macaques (Macaca arctoides). Physiology and Behavior 38:891–895.
Small, M. 1988 Female Primate Sexual Behavior and Conception: Are There Really Sperm to Spare? Current Anthropology 29:81–99.
1989 Female Choice in Nonhuman Primates. Yearbook of Physical Anthropology 32:103–127.
1993 Female Choices: Sexual Behavior of Female Primates. Ithaca: Cornell University Press.
Smith, Robert 1984 Human Sperm Competition. In Sperm Competition and the Evolution of Animal Mating Systems, R. Smith, ed. Pp. 601–659. New York: Academic Press.
Smuts, B. 1992 Male Aggression against Women: An Evolutionary Perspective. Human Nature 3:1–44.
1995 The Evolutionary Origins of Patriarchy. Human Nature 6:1–32.
Smuts, B., and R. Smuts 1993 Male Aggression and Sexual Coercion of Females in Nonhuman Primates and Other Mammals: Evidence and Theoretical Implications. In Advances in the Study of Behavior, Vol. 22, P. J. B. Slater, J. S. Rosenblatt, M. Miliniski, and C. T. Snowden, eds. Pp. 1–63. New York: Academic Press.
Sommer, V. 1989 Sexual Harassment in Langur Monkeys (Presbytis entellus): Competition for Ova, Sperm and Nurture? Ethology 80:205–217.
1994 Infanticide among the Langurs of Jodhpur: Testing the Sexual Selection Hypothesis with a Long-Term Record. In Infanticide and Parental Care, S. Parmigiani and F. vom Saal, eds. Pp. 155–198, Switzerland: Harwood Academic.
1996 Infanticide in Hanuman Langurs: Female Counter-strategies. Paper presented at the International Primatological Society Meeting, August 11, Madison, Wisconsin.
Spencer, H. 1859 Physical Training. British Quarterly Review (April):362–397.
1885 The Principles of Sociology. New York: Appleton. (originally published in 1876)
1904 An Autobiography, 2 vols. London: Williams and Norgate.
Stanislaw, H., and F. J. Rice 1988 Correlation between Sexual Desire and Menstrual Cycle Characteristics. Archives of Sexual Research 17(6):499–508.
Sussman, R., J. Cheverud, and T. Bartlett 1995 Infant Killing as an Evolutionary Strategy: Reality or Myth. Evolutionary Anthropology 3(5):149–151.
Symons, D. 1979 The Evolution of Human Sexuality. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
1982 Another Woman That Never Existed. Quarterly Review of Biology 57(3): 297–300.
Takahata, Y. 1980 The Reproductive Biology of a Free-Ranging Troop of Japanese Monkeys. Primates 21:303–329.
Taub, D. 1980 Female Choice and Mating Strategies among Wild Barbary Macaques (Macaca sylvana). In The Macaques, D. Lindberg, ed. Pp. 287–344. New York: Van Nostrand Rheinhold.
Thornhill, R., and S. W. Gangestad 1993 Human Facial Beauty: Averageness, Symmetry and Parasite Resistance. Human Nature 4:237–269.
Thornhill, R., and N. W. Thornhill 1983 Human Rape: An Evolutionary Analysis. Ethology and Sociobiology 4: 137–173.
Thornhill, R., S. W. Gangestad, and R. Comer 1995 Human Female Orgasm and Male Fluctuating Asymmetry. Animal Behavior 50:1601–1615.
Trivers, R. 1972 Parental Investment and Sexual Selection. In Sexual Selection and the Descent of Man, 1871–1971, B. Campbell, ed. Pp. 136–179. Chicago: Aldine.
Tutin, D. 1975 Sexual Behavior and Mating Patterns in a Community of Wild Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes schweinfurthii). Ph.D. dissertation, University of Edinburgh.
van Noordwijk, M. 1985 Sexual Behaviour of Sumatran Long-Tailed Macaques (Macaca fascicularis). Zeitschrift Tierpsychologie 70:177–196.
Voland, E. 1984 Human Sex Ratio Manipulation: Historical Data from a German Parish. Journal of Human Evolution 13:99–107.
Wallen, K. 1990 Desire and Ability: Hormones and the Regulation of Female Sexual Behavior. Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews 14:233–241.
1995 The Evolution of Female Sexual Desire. In Sexual Nature, Sexual Culture, P. R. Abramson and S. D. Pinkerton, eds. Pp. 57–79. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Wallis, J., and Y. Almasi 1995 A Survey of Reproductive Parameters in Free-Ranging Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes). Paper presented at the 18th Annual Meeting of the American Society of Primatologists, June 21–24.
West-Eberhard, M. J. 1991 Sexual Selection and Social Behavior. In Man and Beast Revisited, M. H. Robinson and L. Tiger, eds. Pp. 159–172. Washington, D.C.: Smithsonian Press.
1992 Behavior and Evolution. In Molds, Molecules and Metazoa: Growing Points in Evolutionary Biology, P. R. Grant and H. S. Horn, eds. Pp. 56–79. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
Wilson, M. E., T. P. Gordon, and D. C. Collins 1982 Variation in Ovarian Steroids Associated with the Annual Mating Period in Female Rhesus (Macaca mulatta). Biological Reproduction 27:530–539.
Wolfe, K., and S. Schulman 1984 Male Response to “Stranger” Females as a Function of Female Reproductive Value among Chimpanzees. American Naturalist 123:163–174.
Wood, J. 1994 Dynamics of Human Reproduction: Biology, Biometry and Demography. New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Worthman, C. M. 1978 Psychoendocrine Study of Human Behavior: Some Interactions of Steroid Hormones with Affect and Behavior in the !Kung San. Ph.D. dissertation, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts.
1988 Concealed Ovulation and the Eye of the Beholder. Paper presented at the Human Behavior and Evolution Society meeting, April 8–10, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor.
Wrangham, R. 1993 The Evolution of Sexuality in Chimpanzees and Bonobos. Human Nature 4:447–480.
Wright, P. C. 1995 Demography and Life History of Free-Ranging Propithecus diadema edwardsi in Ranomafana National Park, Madagascar. International Journal of Primatology 16(5):835–854.
Wright, R. 1994 The Moral Animal: The New Science of Evolutionary Psychology. New York: Pantheon Books.
Zuckerman, S. 1932 The Social Life of Monkeys and Apes. London: Butler and Turner.
About this article
Cite this article
Hrdy, S.B. Raising Darwin’s consciousness. Hum Nat 8, 1–49 (1997). https://doi.org/10.1007/s12110-997-1003-9
- Female sexuality
- Primate evolution